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    Volume 34,2024 Issue 3
    • LIU Maolin, WANG Xiaotang, SONG Xiaona, MA Yunhui, CHANG Xiaoqi, SONG Gouhua

      2024,34(3):1-9, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.001

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the effects of Gli2 on the proliferation, growth, migration, and invasion of oral cancer cells (Tca8113) at the cellular level, and to clarify the molecular mechanism of how Gli2 regulation affects the migration and invasion of oral cancer cells. Methods Small interfering ( si)RNA was used to inhibit Gli2 expression in Tca8113 cells. The effects of Gli2 on the proliferation, growth, migration, and invasion of Tca8113 cells were examined by CCK-8, plate cloning, and transwell chamber assay. Further qRT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to explore the mechanism of how Gli2 regulation effects the malignant proliferation and metastasis of Tca8113 cells. Results The mRNA and protein expression of Gli2 in oral cancer cells ( Tca8113) increased. Interference of Gli2 expression inhibited the proliferation, growth, migration, and invasion of Tca8113 cells. Further experiments showed that interfering with Gli2 expression inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of key factors in the Hedgehog ( Hh) pathway. In addition,interference of Gli2 expression significantly affected the mRNA and protein expression of key factors in epithelial mesenchymal transformation ( EMT) pathways. Conclusions Gli2 is abnormally activated during oral cancer, and interference of Gli2 expression significantly inhibits the proliferation, growth, migration, and invasion of oral cancer cells.Gli2 influences the migration and invasion of oral cancer cells by regulating the Hh and EMT pathways. This study has provided a new way to elucidate the pathogenesis of oral cancer and new perspectives on the clinical treatment of oral cancer.

    • LI Yanhong, XIU Jinghui, ZHOU Li, GUO Jianguo

      2024,34(3):10-17, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.002

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the potential harmful effects of brake-pad sourced particles. Methods Grind the brake pad particles or antimony sulfide particles. Mice were exposed brake pad or antimony sulfide particles by tracheal perfusion for 1 month. We observed pathological changes to the lungs, heart, and liver, and analyzed changes in peripheral blood macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs) via flow cytometry. Results After exposure, the deposition of foreign substances in the alveolar wall of mice was seen, with the obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells around blood vessels,which worsened with increasing particle concentration. Pathological changes, such as vascular inflammation and microthrombosis in the heart and hepatocyte swelling in the liver, were observed. Treg cells in peripheral blood decreased and macrophages increased in the antimony sulfide group and low-dose brake pad particles group, while the proportion of M2-type macrophages decreased, in the antimony sulfide group and low-dose brake pad particle group. Conclusions Exposure to brake pad particles and their component antimony sulfide has varying degrees of toxic effects on the lung,heart, and liver of mice and has an impact on the immune system, indicating the potential health hazards of brake-padderived air pollution.

    • LU Jie, LI Qunsheng, ZHOU Lei, LI Dongrun, SHEN Zhennan, LI Ninghua, CHEN Dong, TANG Wenping, ZHU Fanyu, YANG Wentao

      2024,34(3):18-26, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.003

      Abstract:

      Objective By employing surgically induced varicocele (VC) in SD rats and an apomorphine (APO) test, we screened rats with erectile dysfunction ( ED) after VC and explored method to establish VC and ED models. Methods Sixty rats were randomly divided into Control, Sham, and Model groups with 20 rats in each group. Using the Turner method , we partially ligated the left renal vein to induce left VC three times. APO tests were conducted to screen rats with ED after inducing VC. The numbers of erections, genital grooming, and yawning were observed and recorded.The diameter of bilateral spermatic veins were measured. Both testises and kidneys were weighed. HE staining was used to observe pathological changes of penis and left testis. The success rate of modeling was calculated in the Model group. Results A VC and ED model was successfully established in 15 out of 20 rats in the Model group with a success rate of 75%. After modeling, the diameter of the left spermatic vein in the model group was increased significantly(P<0. 01) and was significantly larger than that before modeling(P<0. 01). The diameter of the right spermatic vein in the Model group was increased(P<0. 05) and higher(P<0. 05) than that before modeling. The weight of the left testis in the Model group was significantly decreased(P<0. 01) compared with that of the right testis. No significant difference in the bilateral kidney weights were observed between or within groups(P<0. 05). In the Model group, the numbers of erections, yawning, and genital grooming decreased significantly(P<0. 01) with the time of modeling. Pathological changes of the left testis and penis were significant in the Model group. Conclusions The Turner method increases the diameter of the spermatic vein in rats, causing testis injury and weight loss, and APO tests can be used to screen rats with ED after VC induction. The combination of the two method is suitable to establish an animal model of VC with an ED status similar to humans.

    • MA Liwei, YAO Hongyu, CHEN Zhe, NI Shiyu, CHEN Song, LI Jing, LIU Jicheng

      2024,34(3):27-35, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.004

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the effect of decoction of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. and jujuba (DEFSJ) against estrogen receptor (ER) negative (-) and ER positive (+) breast cancer via the PI3k / Akt pathway, and to provide a reference for the targeted treatment of breast cancer. Methods DEFSJ extract was prepared and analyzed using UHPLCTriple Quad. DEFSJ containing serum (CS) was prepared via a serum pharmacology method . Different concentrations of DEFSJ-CS were applied to (ER-) MDA-MB-453 and (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro for 48 h. The distribution of cells in different stages of the cellular cycle was evaluated using a Flow cytometer. DNA ladder assay was used to assess the degree of apoptosis, and the expression of PI3k / Akt pathway-related proteins was evaluated by Western blot assay. The expression of FoxO3a, FoxO1a, and Bim mRNA was detected by Real-time quantitative PCR. Nuclear transposition of FoxO3a protein was analysed using a confocal laser microscopy. Results Five batches of DEFSJ extract were analyzed using UPLC, and the result showed that the preparation technology was feasible and the quality was controllable, ensuring the accuracy of the pharmacological experiment result. DEFSJ-CS blocked cells in the G2 / M phase (P<0. 05, P<0. 01).Cells treated with DEFSJ-CS displayed the typical apoptotic ladder in the DNA ladder experiment. Compared with the negative control cells, the DEFSJ-CS group cells had decreased protein expression of p-PI3k, p-Akt, p-FoxO3a, and pFoxO1a (P<0. 05, P<0. 01); increased protein expression of Bim (P<0. 05); decreased mRNA expression of FoxO3a and FoxO1a ( P<0. 05,P<0. 01); increased mRNA expression of Bim ( P<0. 05,P<0. 01); and enhanced nuclear translocation of FoxO3a protein. The data showed that DEFSJ-CS had a stronger effect on (ER-) MDA-MB-453 cells than (ER+) MCF-7 cells. Conclusions The regulatory effect of DEFSJ extract on anti-breast cancer involves the PI3k / Akt pathway, and the effect varies with phenotypic differences.

    • LIU Yan, PENG Mengwei, LIU Gaoyuan, YANG Tiezhu, ZHANG Wenxian, WU Yaosong, CHEN Yulong

      2024,34(3):36-44,50, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.005

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the core behavioral symptoms, biological indicators, and pathological changes of a mouse model of breast cancer complicated with depression induced using 4T1 breast cancer cell inoculation combined with chronic restraint stress (CRS). Methods BABL/ c mice were randomly divided into Control, Stress, Tumor, and stress combined with tumor (S+T) groups. Mice in the tumor and S+T groups were inoculated under the front legs with breast cancer 4T1 cells. After tumor formation, mice in the stress and S+T groups were subjected to CRS for 21 days. The body weight and food intake of each group were monitored during modeling. After the experiment, the occurrence of depressionlike behavior of mice in each group was evaluated by sucrose preference test, open field test, elevated plus-maze test, and forced swimming test. After the mice were decapitated, the weights and volumes of the tumors were measured.Concentrations of serum tumor markers, including carbohydrate antigen (CA199), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF), and related neurotransmitters, including 5-hydroxytryptamine ( 5-HT),norepinephrine ( NE), and corticosterone ( CORT), were determined using ELISA. HE staining was used to observe histopathological changes to the hippocampus and tumor. Results In S+T group mice, body weight and food intake were significantly decreased, tumor weight and volume were significantly increased, serum tumor marker ( CA199, CEA,VEGF) levels were significantly increased, enthusiasm and desire to explore a new environment were reduced, stress and despair behaviors were significantly increased, and levels of the serum neurotransmitters 5-HT and NE and levels of CORT were significantly increased. In addition, the cell arrangement in the tumor tissue was loose, the amount of intercellular substance decreased, the pathological nuclear classification phase was increased, the arrangement and morphology of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus were disordered, and there were obvious nuclear vacuolation-like changes. Conclusions A mouse model of breast cancer complicated with depression induced by 4T1 breast cancer cell inoculation combined with CRS showed the typical dual symptoms and biological indicators of breast cancer and depression and can be used as a good reference model for experimental studies of breast cancer complicated with depression.

    • YU Kui, LIANG Xiaoqiang, HAN Mian, ZHANG Jingzhe

      2024,34(3):45-50, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.006

      Abstract:

      Objective A stable model of acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis was established in rats to detect pathophysiological indexes and provide a reliable standardized animal model for the study of acute cholangitis and cholestasis. Methods SPF-grade male SD rats were selected, and the model was constructed via the injection of toxoid into the lower bile duct, followed by ligation of the common bile duct. Changes in body weight, mortality, major indexes of liver function, and histopathological changes in the liver were evaluated before and after modeling. Results After modeling, the body weight of rats in the model group decreased significantly. There were no deaths and no abnormalities of liver function in the sham-operation group. Three rats died in the model group, and the mortality rate of the model group was 12%. The main indexes of liver function and liver pathology showed obvious cholestasis and injurious changes to hepatic function in the model. Conclusions In this study, an acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis model rat was successfully established. The model has the advantages of ease of operation, minimal injury, low mortality, and a highly successful modeling rate, and it can provide a standardized experimental animal model for studying the mechanisms of and developing drugs for these common diseases.

    • HUANG Chuhan, YANG Dingquan, ZHONG Shiyi, WU Ruiying, YANG Zhishan, FANG Huijuan, LIU Qingwu

      2024,34(3):51-56, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.007

      Abstract:

      Objective This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of Sanjie Quban recipe in a keloid nude mice model and its impact on transforming growth factor-β1 ( TGF-β1). Methods Keloid tissue after surgical resection was subcutaneously transplanted into the backs of healthy SPF BALB/ C female nude mice, aged 6~ 8 weeks, and a keloid nude mice model was thus established. The mice were randomly divided into three groups, the Sanjie Quban recipe group,the Asiaticoside tablet group and the control gnup, with five in each group. They were respectively treated with Sanjie Quban recipe, Asiaticoside tablets, or sterile pure water. After 28 days of continuous gavage, the keloid tissue was exfoliated and weighed, and HE staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemical staining for TGF-β1 were conducted.Differences in keloid weight between the three groups before and after treatment were compared, as were the differences in collagen fiber, fibroblast numbers, and TGF-β1 expression between the three groups after treatment. Results The difference in keloid weight before and after treatment in the Asiaticoside tablet group was greater than that of the control group, and the weight difference before and after treatment keloid treatment was the largest in the Sanjie Quban recipe group (P<0. 01). Compared with the control group, collagen fibers in the Sanjie Quban recipe group were looser and less numerous, and fibroblasts were decreased in number. The expression of TGF-β1 in the Sanjie Quban recipe group was decreased compared with that of the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusions Sanjie Quban recipe has certain therapeutic effects on keloids. The mechanism may involve reducing the expression of TGF-β1 in keloid tissue and thereby reducing the proliferation of fibroblasts and the synthesis of extracellular matrix. This study provides experimental and theoretical bases for the clinical treatment of keloids with Chinese medicine.

    • SHEN Tingting, LI Suyun, LI Ya, XUAN Yinshuang, LI Jingmei, LI Gaofeng, HAN Bingyang

      2024,34(3):57-67, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.008

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the action of Bufei Jianpi formula (BJF) on mitochondrial damage to skeletal muscle in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD) rats via its regulation of the IRS-1/ PI3K signaling axis. Methods 60 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into Control group, Model group ( COPD stable stage group ),aminophylline (Am) group, BJF group, pioglitazone (PIO) group and BJF+PIO group, with 10 rats per group. A stable COPD rat model was established via forced smoking and Klebsiella pneumoniae nasal drip method. Samples were taken from the 9 the week to the end of the 20 the week, and the weight of the rats was measured every week. Routine sectioning and HE staining were performed on lung and skeletal muscle tissue, and corresponding pathological changes were observed under a light microscope. The lung function of the rats was observed by whole-body plethysmography in weeks 0, 8, and 20,including tidal VT, PEF, and EF50. The mRNA expression of IRS-1, leptin, PGC1-α, and PI3K in rat skeletal muscle was detected by qPCR. The expression of PGC-1α, TFAM, IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT, and leptin in rat skeletal muscle tissue was detected by Western blot. Results The Model group, but not the Control group, showed a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrating the alveolar interstitium and bronchus, indicative of lung disease; some alveolar walls had broken and fused to form air cavities, and fiber networks were destroyed. After drug treatment, the rats showed improved alveolar wall and fiber network integrity and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in the bronchus, especially those in the BJF and Am groups. In the drug treatment groups, the skeletal muscle pathology of each group showed improved spatial arrangement, the atrophy and fracturing of muscle fibers were ameliorated to different degrees, and cytoplasmic staining of muscle cells was uneven, and the BJF group showed the most significant effects. Compared with the Control group, the Model group’s PEF, VT, and EF50 significantly decreased from week 8 (P<0. 01), while the BJF, BJF+PIO and Am groups had significantly increased PEF and EF50 (P<0. 01). Compared with Control group, the Model group’ s mRNA and protein expression levels of IRS-1, PGC-1α, and PI3K were significantly decreased (P<0. 05, P<0. 01) , the level of leptin was significantly increased (P<0. 01). Compared with the Model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of IRS1, PGC-1α and PI3K in the BJF group were significantly increased (P<0. 05, P<0. 01), and the mRNA expression of IRS-1 in the PIO group was significantly increased (P<0. 01). The BJF+PIO group’s mRNA levels of PGC-1α (P<0. 01) and mRNA and protein levels of IRS-1 and PI3K were significantly increased (P<0. 05, P<0. 01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of PI3K in the Am group were significantly increased (P<0. 01). The expression levels of leptin mRNA were significantly decreased in the four treatment groups (P<0. 01), and the expression of leptin protein was significantly decreased in all treatment groups except the Am group (P<0. 01). Compared with the Control group, the Model group’ s quadriceps femoris tissue showed a significant decrease in TFAM and p-AKT expression. TFAM and p-AKT expression in all the treatment groups showed an increasing trend, but the difference was not statistically significant ( P> 0. 05). Conclusions By regulating the IRS-1/ PI3K signaling axis, Bufei Jiempi reduces mitochondrial damage to skeletal muscle, increases the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM, enhances mitochondrial biosynthesis, and reduces pathological damage to lung and skeletal muscle tissue.

    • NI Jianyu, BAI Ningning, LIU Xianli, GONG Lihong, SHOU Qiyang

      2024,34(3):68-74, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.009

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate whether a stable and reliable hyperuricemia model can be established in mice with an ICR background via a triple-modeling method ( combined potassium oxazine, hypoxanthine, and 30% yeast paste), and to evaluate the effect of the positive drug febuxostat on the model. Methods A hyperuricemia model of ICR mice was established using a single drug or double- or triple-drug combinations. Serum uric acid and creatinine concentrations, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and urate oxidase (UOX) activity, and uric acid transporter (URAT)1, glucose transporter (Glut)9, anion transporter (OAT)1, and ATP-binding box subfamily G member (ABCG)2 mRNA levels were detected to evaluate whether the hyperuricemia model was formed successfully. Results The serum uric acid levels of ICR mice were not significantly changed by potassium oxazine alone, as they showed an increase but were not significantly different to those of the 30% yeast paste diet or hypoxanthine combined groups. Serum uric acid levels in the triple administration group were significantly increased at 7 days (P<0. 01), while XOD enzyme activity had increased(P<0.01) and UOX enzyme activity decreased (P<0. 001) at the same timepoint. There were increased expression levels of URAT1 and Glut9 (P<0. 05, P< 0. 001), and decreased expression levels of OAT1 and ABCG2 (P<0. 001). During dynamic monitoring, the blood uric acid levels of triple administration-induced ICR mice peaked at 7 days. In addition,triple administration-induced hyperuricemia in ICR mice was sensitive to the positive drug febuxostat, which caused a significant decrease in blood uric acid levels ( P< 0. 001). Conclusions A hyperuricemia model in ICR mice can be stably induced by triple administration for 7 days.

    • MA Xian, GAO Ping, LIU Zhenyi, XIN Ziyuan, JIN Xiaofei, ZHOU Xiaohong, GAO Weijuan

      2024,34(3):75-84,101, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.010

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the mechanisms of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) in reducing oxidative stress levels to protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia / reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats. Methods A middle cerebral artery occlusion / reperfusion ( MCAO/ R) model in rats was established via wire embolization method .PeriCam PSI laser speckle flow imaging was applied to detect whether the model was successfully established. Neurological deficits in the rats were evaluated by Zea Longa score, and histopathological changes in the rat brain were observed by HE staining. The degree of brain edema was detected by the dry and wet weight method. BBB permeability was detected by Evans blue staining, and ultrastructural changes to the BBB were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The levels of ROS, MDA and SOD activities, which are related to oxidative stress, were detected using kits. The expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. The expression levels of Occludin, ZO-1, and Claudin-5 tight junction proteins were determined via immunofluorescence and Western blot. Results BYHWD reduced neurological deficit scores, alleviated brain histopathological damage, alleviated BBB structural disruption, prolonged the appearance of dense regions in the tight junction structure, attenuated edema of the brain on the ischemic side, and reduced BBB permeability in MCAO/ R rats. BYHWD decreased the levels of ROS and MDA,increased the activity of SOD, decreased the expression levels of MMP-9, and increased the expression levels of Occludin,Claudin-5 and ZO-1. Conclusions BYHWD can increase BBB tight junction protein expression levels, reduce the permeability of the BBB, protect the ultrastructure of the BBB, and reduce brain edema, and its mechanisms may be related to its antioxidant activity and inhibition of MMP-9 activation.

    • SONG Yanmei, SUN Ningxin, LIU Chen, SONG Yifen, LI Hongli, YIN Chonggao

      2024,34(3):85-92, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.011

      Abstract:

      Objective By investigating the effects of miR-379-5p on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, we aimed to provide new therapeutic targets for the clinical inhibition of breast cancer proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. Methods After plasmid transfection, 4T1 cells were utilized to detect the expression of miR-379-5p using fluorescence quantitative PCR. While 5-ethynyl-2’ doxyuridine (EdU) cell proliferation and Transwell assays were employed to detect changes in the proliferation and invasion ability of 4T1 cells in each group.The migration ability of 4T1 cells after overexpression and knockdown of miR-379-5p was examined by scratch healing assay. A transplanted tumor model of breast cancer was established in BABL/ c mice, and the effects of overexpressing miR-379-5p on tumor growth and the number and size of lung metastases were observed. Results EdU result showed that knocking down miR-379-5p enhanced the proliferation ability of the cells compared with the control group cells, and miR379-5p overexpression reduced the capacity of breast cancer cells to proliferate (P<0. 05). Transwell and wound healing assays showed that miR-379-5p knockdown enhanced, while miR-379-5p overexpression significantly inhibited, the invasion and migratory ability of breast cancer cells (P<0. 01). An in vivo tumorigenesis experiment with BABL/ c mice showed that miR-379-5p overexpression significantly slowed the tumor growth rate (P<0. 05) and inhibited lung metastasis (P < 0. 01). Conclusions MiR-379-5p plays a role in tumor gene suppression in breast cancer and inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells.

    • LIU Yi, LI Xiaolei, LIANG Xinpei, WANG Na, MA Shan, ZHANG Xinping, JIA Rufu, ZHANG Su, LI Xian

      2024,34(3):93-101, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.012

      Abstract:

      Objective A comparison of two method of establishing pressure ulcer rat models to determine which is the most suitable for experimental use. Methods 18 male SD rats were randomly divided into control ( n= 6), model A (n= 6) and model B (n= 6) groups. In the control group, iodophor treatment was given after hair removal at the simulated modeling site. In model group A, longitudinal compression was performed by simple deep-tissue foreign body implantation.In model group B, transverse compression was performed via the magnet compression method. The times required to complete the process and for each stage of pressure ulcer model establishment in each group were recorded. The general condition of the rats was observed, and the modeling rate, mortality rate, and infection rate were compared. Results By naked eye, we observed that the model A and model B groups gradually developed redness and swelling, ulceration,bleeding, exudation, and necrosis. Comparison of the whole time to produce pressure uler between model A and model B groups:the difference between the two groups was statitically significant (P<0. 05). Comparison of the time to produce pressure injury between Model A and Model B: The difference between the two groups at stage I was not statistically significant (P>< 0. 05); the difference between the two groups at stage II was statistically significant ( P< 0 05); the difference between the two groups at stage III was statistically significant (P<0 05); the difference between the two groups at stage IV was statistically significant P< 0 05). The mental and sports scores of the rats in the control group were significantly different from those in the model A and model B groups (P<0. 05). The general state of rats in the model group A was significantly different from that in the model B group, and coat color was dimer and activity decreased in the model group A. The modelling rate of rats in both model A and model B groups was 100%. The mortality and infection rates of the model group A were higher than those of the model group B, which were 33. 34% and 16. 70%, respectively. Conclusions Successful preparation of a four-stage model of pressure ulers in both modalities. The two method have both commonalities and distinct characteristics. The magnet compression method required less time, the rats were generally in good condition, and the mortality and infection rates were low; thus it is suitable for short-term intervention research. The simple deep-tissue foreign body implantation method took longer, required rats to have a certain level of tolerance, had high infection and mortality rates, and is more suitable for use for long-term observations of pressure ulcers.

    • CHEN Yujun, SU Meiyangyi, WANG Qingxuan, GAO Ran

      2024,34(3):102-110, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.013

      Abstract:

      Objective Emergency technology research projects have two key aspects, “ emergency ” and“research”, but it is not always clear how to effectively achieve the desired result. Organizations that undertake emergency technology research projects need to develop reasonable project management mechanisms to ensure their successful implementation. In this study, we investigated the current problems faced by those managing emergency technology research projects in the medical field. We researched and analyzed possible measures to improve the efficiency and quality of scientific research management. Methods This study leveraged the author’s practical experience to investigate the current status of scientific research management in relevant units. Questionnaire surveys were conducted to ascertain the management aspects that most concern scientific managers and researchers. The problems raised by the survey were categorized and discussed. Results Through the research, we found that ( 1) at present, there are few management standards for emergency technology research projects; ( 2) the issue of greatest concern for scientific researchers is administrative approval and project funding; (3) the issue of greatest concern for scientific management personnel is how to meet the management requirements of higher-level units and the needs of scientific researchers under the premise of legal compliance. Conclusions Emergency technology research projects have unique characteristics distinct from those of conventional technology projects. Management optimization can be carried out in terms of project approval, funding use, resource allocation, and safety. This study has provided innovative solutions to improve the management of emergency technology research projects and a useful reference of the experiences of various scientific research units in managing such projects.

    • LIANG Yuying, HUANG Yong, LIU Junsheng, OU Yilin, LI Yiwen, ZHANG Rui, LIZheng, ZHANG Zhinan

      2024,34(3):111-119, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.014

      Abstract:

      Autophagy is the main degradation and recycling pathway for abnormal aggregates and damaged organelles in cells, and it maintains the normal metabolic balance and material renewal in cells. Autophagy has neuroprotective effects and can affect the functional state of the nervous system by regulating homeostasis, development,apoptosis, and other physiological processes of neurons and glial cells. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that nervous system diseases are closely related to abnormal autophagy, and inhibition or overactivation of autophagy affects the occurrence and development of depression, neurodegenerative diseases, and schizophrenia. Understanding the mechanisms of autophagy in nervous system diseases is of great significance for their prevention and treatment. This paper mainly reviews the current progress of autophagy research and the above diseases of the nervous system, providing a reference for further research into these diseases.

    • ZHANG Qianyao, CHENG Hao, HUANG Yizhen, TENG Hanxin, ZHANG Yue, ZAHNG Ruilin

      2024,34(3):120-126, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.015

      Abstract:

      The psychoactive properties of cannabinoids are well known, and there are controversies over whether cannabinoids can be used for therapeutic purposes worldwide. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC) is the main psychoactive substance in cannabis. The neurological mechanisms of THC were only recently discovered, and its neurological mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a very important structure protecting the brain and is the first line of defense preventing foreign substances from entering the brain. THC’s lipophilic nature and its interaction with the endocannabinoid system make it more likely to act on the BBB. In this paper, we review the neurotoxic effects of THC, focusing on its effect and mechanism of action on the BBB, and provide a theoretical basis for studies elucidating the neural mechanism of THC.

    • ZHU Meiping, ZHANG Shizhong

      2024,34(3):127-132, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.016

      Abstract:

      Transent receptor potential(TRP) channels are non-selective cation channels. In recent years, a large number of studies have found that TRP channels participate in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. How mitochondrial function is regulated by TRP channels and the relationship to cardiovascular diseases have become research hotspots. Up to now, related studies have mainly focused on TRPV, TRPM, and TRPC channels. This review focuses on the roles of the above TRP channels in the regulation of mitochondrial function and their relationships to cardiovascular diseases.

    • LI Chao, LI Jian, GAO Zhenan, SHEN Mingyu, PU Jingjing, WANG Meng

      2024,34(3):133-141, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.017

      Abstract:

      Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and a potential neurotoxin. During the development of depression, the glutamate concentration increases in the hippocampus. When glutamate accumulates, it causes serious damage to neurons and brain tissue, aggravating the depressive state. Therefore,glutamate accumulation may be a major mechanism of depression development. Astrocytes, glutamate transporters, and glutamate receptors play important regulatory roles in the glutamate concentration. This article reviews the mechanism-ofaction of traditional Chinese medicine on depression by regulating astrocytes, glutamate transporters, and glutamate receptors, and provides new ideas to explore treatment of depression by traditional Chinese medicine.

    • ZHANG Fan, TIAN Chunyu, WANG Jingcun, LA Xiaojin, FU Qianru, LI Jie, FU Wenhao

      2024,34(3):142-148, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.018

      Abstract:

      Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) belongs to group B of the scavenger receptor cysteine richsuper family. AIM is a soluble protein secreted by macrophages. The expression of this protein is controlled by the liver X receptor. AIM, which is secreted by macrophages, plays important and broad roles in the immune responses of the body. It not only inhibits the apoptosis of macrophages but also participates in the regulation of macrophage polarization. In addition, studies have revealed that AIM is involved in various physiological and pathological processes, such as inflammation, obesity, atherosclerosis, and cancer. It has been used as a biological marker for the diagnosis of diseases such as tuberculosis and liver cirrhosis. Moreover, it can promote the lipolysis of adipose cells by inhibiting the activity of fatty acid synthase ( FAS), playing an important role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, lipid metabolism, and autoimmune diseases. In this paper, we review the multiple functional characteristics of AIM and its effects on inflammation, lipid metabolism, and related diseases to provide a theoretical basis for relevant medical research.

    • YANG Zhihui, HU Yang, ZONG Zheng, SUN Xiangming, SONG Hui, CHEN Yingxiang, XU Beilei, ZHANG Wenjun, CHEN Luning, LI Wenlan

      2024,34(3):149-160, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.019

      Abstract:

      Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as “ ovarian insufficiency”, has an incidence of 1% ~ 5%. The incidence has been on the rise in recent years, seriously affecting women’s physical and mental health and quality of life. At present, the cause and mechanisms of POI are still unclear, and the method and applications of model construction are also confusing. Most models have some shortcomings in pertinence and stability. The limitations greatly limit research into the clinical diagnosis and treatment of POI. This paper summarizes and discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of POI and the construction of POI animal models to provide a comprehensive reference for those studying POI.

    • SUN Kexin, XIAO Yuqian, WAN Jun, CHEN Shuying, CHEN Limin, WANG Yan, BAIYanjie

      2024,34(3):161-171, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.020

      Abstract:

      Post-stroke cognitive impairment ( PSCI) is a common complication after stroke, which significantly affects quality of life. However, the pathogenesis has not been fully explained. Increasing evidence has shown that the mechanism of programmed cell death (PCD) is related to PSCI, including apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, PANoptosis, parthanatos, and ferroptosis. Therefore, it is crucial to clearly understand the various mechanisms of PCD and their relationship with PSCI, and to elucidate the role of PCD in PSCI pathogenesis. The article reviews six PCD pathways related to PSCI, summarizes their mechanisms of action in PSCI, and elucidates the possible crosstalk among pathways to provide a basis for clinical targeting of regulatory factors in the PCD pathway for PSCI treatment.

    • SUN Haojie, ZHU Junlei, LI Wei, WANG Suogang

      2024,34(3):172-178, DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1671-7856.2024.03.021

      Abstract:

      Post-stroke cognitive impairment ( PSCI) is a common complication after stroke, which significantly affects quality of life. However, the pathogenesis has not been fully explained. Increasing evidence has shown that the mechanism of programmed cell death (PCD) is related to PSCI, including apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, PANoptosis, parthanatos, and ferroptosis. Therefore, it is crucial to clearly understand the various mechanisms of PCD and their relationship with PSCI, and to elucidate the role of PCD in PSCI pathogenesis. The article reviews six PCD pathways related to PSCI, summarizes their mechanisms of action in PSCI, and elucidates the possible crosstalk among pathways to provide a basis for clinical targeting of regulatory factors in the PCD pathway for PSCI treatment.

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    Volume 34,2024 Issue 3
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    • Animal Model Analysis of Atherosclerosis Based on Clinical Symptoms in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

      Luo Shiwen, Yang Dongmei

      Abstract:

      Objectives Based on the clinical characteristics of atherosclerosis in? traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine, this paper analyzes the common animal models of atherosclerosis(AS), and the coincidence of the models with clinical characteristics was scored, in the hope of providing new ideas and reference for studying animal models of AS. Methods This paper reviewed the varieties, modeling methods, modeling principles and characteristics of common animal models of AS. Moreover, according to the clinical diagnostic criteria and symptom characteristics, the similarity of the common animal models was analyzed. Results High-fat feeding type, mechanical injury combined with high-fat feeding type, genetic engineering combined with high-fat feeding type, chemical induction combined with high-fat feeding type and the models of AS combining Chinese clinical syndrome and western disease are widely established in animal models of AS. Comparative analysis result showed that balloon injury combined with high fat feeding type, ApoE receptor knockout mouse combined with high-fat diet type and phlegm and blood stasis type in models of disease and symptom combination showed a comparatively high level of clinical agreement between Chinese and western medicine. Conclusions Presently, most of the animal models of AS had the high degree of coincidence with western medicine, evaluation criterion is dominated by the western medicine as well, which lack of the combination between disease and syndrome, so as to hinder development of concept of Wholism and treatment by differentiation of syndromes in TCM. Therefore, establishing the exact and high coincidence degree animal model, which combines the disease and its TCM symptoms, is the top priority of studying the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis.

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    • Visualization Analysis of Research Progress on Neutrophils in Diabetes Based on Citespace

      WANG Jin-xi, YU Rong, HUANG Juan, Liu Yangyang, ZHANG Tian-tian, LI Wei, YANG Hui, LEI Shi-hui

      Abstract:

      Objective This article aims to clarify the development of neutrophils and diabetes fields, as well as the evolving characteristics, potential trends, and research hotspots of neutrophils in the diabetes field. Methods 2998 relevant literatures on neutrophils in the diabetes field indexed in Web of Science from 2010 to 2023 were retrieved, and visual analysis of the relevant literatures on neutrophils in the diabetes field was conducted using Citespace6.1.R6. Results Since 2012, publications on this topic have grown rapidly. Bayat Mohammad, Liu Tong, Amini Abdollah, Zhang Rui are high-yield authors, with 7 related articles published. China and Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ are the countries and institutions with the most published papers. The most influential journal in this field is "PLOS ONE", cited 1380 times. Literature co-citation analysis shows that the highest focus in topics related to diabetes currently are "extracellular trap" and "covid-19 patient". Co-occurrence analysis, clustering analysis, and keyword burst analysis indicate that "lymphocyte ratio" (13.08) and "neutrophil extracellular trap" (7.2) are the most researched topics in the field of neutrophils and diabetes. Literature in this field mainly focuses on "myocardial infarction", "endothelial", "oxidative stress", and "apoptosis". Conclusion This article analyzes the evolving trends of neutrophils in the diabetes field using Citespace, providing new insights for researchers to conduct future research in the diabetes field.

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    • The role of UBC9 mediated SUMO modification in homocysteine-induced pyrodeath of macrophages

      Ma Lingju, Chi Hongyang, Wu xinxue, Ma Fujun, Tian Yancheng, Zhao Caiqi, He Tianyu, Peng hongjian, JiangYideng, Yang Li, Huang Hui, Ma Shengchao

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the role of ubiquitin Conjugating Enzyme 9 (UBC9) in the pyrodeath of homocysteine-induced macrophages mediated by SUMO modification. Methods Firstly, The effects of homocysteine at different concentrations (0μmol/L, 50μmol/L, 100μmol/L, 150μmol/L, 200μmol/L) on the viability and pyrodeath of mouse macrophages (RAW264.7) were detected by CCK-8 and Western blot ;Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of UBC9, SUMO-modified protein SUMO-1 and inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in different groups of cells. qRT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of UBC9 before and after interference, and to detect the expression of UBC9, pyrogen-related protein and SUCO-1 after interference.Results After stimulation with 100μmol/L Hcy, the activity of macrophages was not affected, and the expressions of NLRP3 and caspase-1 were the most obvious (P < 0.05).Compared with Control group, the expression levels of and IL-1β were increased in Hcy group (P < 0.01), and the expression of SUMO-1 was increased (P < 0.01). Compared with Control group, UBC9 protein level and mRNA level in Hcy group were increased (P < 0.05). After transfection with si-UBC9, the expressions of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, UBC9 and SUMO-1 in si-UBC9+Hcy group were decreased compared with si-NC+Hcy group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Hyperhomocysteamine (Hcy) induces pyrodeath in macrophages, and its mechanism is related to the up-regulation of ubiquitin binding enzyme 9 to SUMO modification.

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    • Observation on the progress of the murine models of chronic ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate

      KONG Weijiao, YAN Yiyue, ZHAO Peikai, MAO Xiaojian, WANG Ting

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the progress of chronic Ulcerative Colitis (UC) model induced by dextran sulfate (DSS) in mice. Methods 2.5% DSS solution were provided ad libitum for 5 days, and tap water for were supplied for another 5 days in one induction cycle. Male C57BL/6 mice were undergone continuous three cycles of induction to establish the chronic UC model. The weight, disease activity index (DAI), organ index, colon length of mice and pathological changes of colon tissue were determined. The level of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in colon tissue, cytokines such as IL-1β in serum and colon were detected. Results During the three cycles, all mice had diarrhea, bloody stool, weight loss, colon length shortening and pathological injury, which were aggravated after DSS administration and relieved after drinking water administration. The content of MPO in colon gradually increased. The spleen index and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, TGF-β and TNF-α in serum increased continuously or fluctuating. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in colon increased significantly in the first or second cycle, and then decreased slowly. There was no significant change in TNF-α in colon. The concentrations of IL-10 in serum and colon fluctuated up and down, and decreased to a level lower than or remained the same as that in normal group at the end of the experiment. Conclusion Chronic UC model can be successfully induced by 2.5%DSS solution, which is characterized by alternating symptoms of "attack-remission". The persistent systemic inflammatory reaction and overactivation of colonic neutrophils reflect the characteristics of recurrent UC to some extent. It can be used as a tool for analying the pathological changes and interrention opportunities of UC, as well as for discovering and evaluating UC therapeutic drugs.

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    • Research progress of ferroptosis in sepsis-associated acute lung injury

      SHI Yanglin, YANG Jianya, CHANG Qingqing, WANG Qianqian, WANG Minghang, LI Suyun

      Abstract:

      Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, with an extremely high mortality rate. It is the main risk factor for acute lung injury (ALI). However, the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of sepsis-associated ALI are not fully understood, and effective drugs are extremely limited. Therefore, the urgent task is to explore the pathogenesis of sepsis associated ALI and attempt to discover effective intervention measures to improve the prognosis of sepsis associated ALI patients. In recent years, ferroptosis has been considered closely related to the pathological and physiological processes of sepsis associated ALI, and inhibiting related cell ferroptosis can effectively slow down the occurrence and development of the disease. In this paper, the therapeutic strategies targeting ferroptosis of related cells were reviewed, in order to provide reference for the research on ferroptosis of sepsis associated ALI and provide a new perspective for the treatment of sepsis associated ALI.

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    • Effect and mechanism of ICAM5 on alcohol dependence behavior of mice

      Hu Jiajia, Yang Zhuanfang, Sun Xizhe, Yuan Juanjuan, Cheng Yan, Zhang Yu, Yin LITIAN

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】 Objective We investigated the effects of ICAM5 in hippocampus of mice alcohol drinking preference, and potential mechanisms. Methods A alcohol two-bottle choice model was developed by 8-week-old male C57BL/6J mice, randomly divided to two groups, the control group and alcohol group. The protein expression of ICAM5 in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex was detected. ICAM5 overexpressed adeno-associated virus was constructed and injected into the hippocampus by stereotaxic method. The expression level of ICAM5 protein in hippocampus was detected by immunofluorescence and Western blot. Then detected the alcohol preference and locomotor activity of mice with the open field test, conditioned place preference experiment, and loss of righting reflex test. Western blot analysis was used to identify neuron F-actin/G-actin ratio. Using Golgi staining, the morphology of dendritic spines was identified. Results In the alcohol two-bottle choice model, the expression of ICAM5 in the hippocampus of mice in the alcohol group was considerably lower than the control group. The specific expression of ICAM5 in the hippocampus of mice was observed by fluorescence microscopy. In the open field experiment, the staying time and moving distance of AAV-ICAM5 group were significantly increased compared with the control group (P < 0.01). In the CPP experiment, the residence time of AAV-ICAM5 mice in the alcohol-paired compartment was significantly lower than that of control mice (P < 0.001). In the lose the righting reflex experiment, overexpression of ICAM5 significantly reduced the sedation latency (P < 0.01), but significantly shortened the duration of sedation (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the ratio of F-actin/G-actin in hippocampus was significantly increased after drinking (P < 0.01). But after ICAM5 overexpression, the F-actin/G-actin ratio was significantly decreased (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, the density of dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 region was increased after drinking alcohol (P < 0.001), but the density of dendritic spines in AAV-ICAM5+EtOH group was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Conclusions ICAM5 may modulated the expression of cytoskeleton protein to change structural plasticity of dendritic spines, which contribute to alcohol drinking and locomotor behaviors change of mice.

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    • Combined with systematic pharmacology and metabonomics to explore the mechanism of baicalein in the treatment of hyperuricemia

      liangjingzhen, gaoyingjie, yewenqian, weibingyan, cheenzhaoyang, yangfan

      Abstract:

      Objective to explore the effect and mechanism of baicalein in the treatment of hyperuricemia. Methods the mouse model of hyperuricemia was established by yeast extract combined with potassium oxazinate. The effect and potential mechanism of baicalein in the treatment of hyperuricemia were studied by biochemical indexes, pathological changes, non-target metabonomics and network pharmacology. Results baicalein could reduce the contents of uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, reduce the inflammatory injury of renal tissue, up-regulate the expression level of uric acid excretion protein and down-regulate the expression level of uric acid reabsorption protein. Nine disease-related targets such as BCL2, SIRT1 and XDH were screened by network pharmacology. Six key metabolic pathways including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide metabolism, caffeine metabolism and purine metabolism were screened by metabonomics analysis. Conclusion baicalein can treat hyperuricemia and reduce renal injury, and its mechanism may be related to the metabolic pathways of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide regulated by SIRT1 and quinolinate.

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    • Progress in the use of gene editing technologies in the research of immunodeficiency animal models

      mayunhui, wangxiaotang, gaojiping, songguohua

      Abstract:

      Immunodeficiency animal models play an important role in preclinical research and are important experimental tools in modern biomedical research, widely used in immunology, genetics, oncology and microbiology, and other research fields. Gene editing is a technology of targeted modification of biological genomes, from emergence to application, it has greatly promoted the development of biomedical research. Gene editing technology mainly includes homing endonucleases (HEs), zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. At present, researchers has used these technology to establish a variety type of immune deficiency animal models, each with its own advantages and limitation. In recent years, a large number of studies have confirmed that the human immunodeficiency animal model can accurately simulate the function of cancer cells, drugs and immune system in human body, and can better simulate human diseases, and is widely used in the study of human immunobiology and the potential mechanism of human complex diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in the research and application of gene editing technology in the construction of immune deficiency animal models, discussed the problems and optimization strategies of gene editing technology in the preparation of immune deficiency animal models in depth, and prospected its future development prospects, in order to provide references for researchers to select and build immune deficiency animal models.

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    • Extreme animal protectionism and experimental animal welfare ethics

      Tian Xuemei, Sachiko Kubo, Wu Yingjie, Su Tao

      Abstract:

      Experimental animals, as "living reagents", promote the development of life science and medicine, and also make the public pay more attention to the welfare ethics of experimental animals. Experimental animal welfare ethics is not only an important part of animal protection, but also plays an important role in protecting the rights and interests of experimental animals and promoting the rationality and morality of scientific research. However, in the evolution of animal protectionism, some extreme theory such as extreme animal protectionism had also emerged. This article summarized the main theories of animal protectionism and the development of animal welfare ethics and analyzed the main problems of extreme animal protectionism. This article expounds the present situation and problems of experimental animal welfare ethics and puts forward some suggestions to promote the practice of experimental animal welfare ethics, in order to provide references for our country's experimental animal welfare ethics practice and system construction.

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    • Comparative studies of transcriptomics in two murine liver fibrosis models induced by hepatotoxic chemicals

      YAN Ruanyu, WU Hongyu, HUANG Kai, SUN Xin, XUE Jingbo, TAO Yanyan, LIU Chenghai, PENG Yuan

      Abstract:

      Objective To compare the transcriptomic differences between carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced and Diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) diet-induced mouse models of liver fibrosis in order to provide a framework for future research utilizing mouse liver fibrosis models. Methods Mouse models of liver fibrosis were induced by 10%CCl4 (2ml/kg) injection and 0.1%DDC diet, respectively. After the 4 -week induction, the serum levels of ALT, AST, and TBil were detected. HE and Sirius red staining were observed to analyze the hepatic inflammation and collagen deposition. Jamall's method was used to evaluate the hydroxyproline (Hyp) content in the liver tissues. Hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were measured by the elisa kits. Total RNA was extracted from murine liver tissues for RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The differentially expressed genes of the two models were analyzed by R software and then GO and KEGG enrichment were analyzed. Then, cwas used to verify the significantly different genes. Results Compared with normal mice, the serum levels of ALT, AST, TBil and the expressions of hepatic TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β were significantly increased in mice received CCl4-induction and DDC diet mice respectively, while the serum level of Alb was decreased. Pathological staining showed that the structures of liver tissues were destroyed and a large number of hepatocytes around the central vein were hyalinized and necrotic in CCl4-treated mice. In DDC diet mice, a lot of porphyrins were deposited in the liver and a large number of inflammatory cells were infiltrated in the portal area and the bile duct. Different degrees of collagen deposition were observed in the liver tissues of the two model mice. Different genes(DEGs) of CCl4-treated and DDC-diet mice were screened according to a filter (|logFC|> 2 times and P < 0.05). 1820 and 2373 DEGs in CCl4-treated and DDC-diet were analyzed, including 1302 and 1978 up-regulated genes , 518 and 395 down-regulated genes, respectively. GO annotation showed that the two models had important functions in molecular function (MF), biological process (BP) and cell component (CC). KEGG analysis showed that 22 and 29 signaling pathways were activated in CCl4-induction and DDC diet model, respectively. Among these, 16 signaling pathways such as extracellular matrix receptor interaction, cell cycle, protein digestion and absorption, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt were significantly enriched in the two models (P < 0.05). Cluster analysis showed that Mup11, Mup15, Mup17, Mup1 were significantly down-regulated in both models, which were identified by RT-qPCR (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study reported and compared the RNA-Seq transcriptomic characteristics of liver fibrosis models induced by CCl4-induction and DDC-diet, respectively. By observing the locations of gene expression and the pathways regulated by the genes, an example was established for the subsequent selection of animal models to study the pathogenesis and treatment of liver fibrosis.

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    • Mechanism of Juanxiao decoction regulating type 3 innate lymphoid cells in treating obese asthmatic mice

      TIAN Min ping, ZHANG Qing yuan, XIANG Shuang di, CHENG Ling ling, SUN Peng, XUE Han-rong

      Abstract:

      Objective: Explore the mechanism of Juanxiao Decoction in regulating the type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) in the treatment of obese asthma. Method: Sixty male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into a normal group, a model group (High Fat Diet+OVA), and Juanxiao Decoction groups (low-, middle-, and high doses of 8.5, 17, and 34 g?kg-1), dexamethasone group (1 mg?kg-1), with10 in each group. Except for the normal group, other groups were fed high-fat diet for 12 weeks, and OVA sensitization and atomization inhalation were used to establish an obesity asthma model. From the first atomization, the low-, medium-, and high dose groups of Juanxiao decoction and the dexamethasone group were given corresponding drugs by gavage, while the normal group and model group were given equal amounts of saline by gavage for 7 days. Observing the state of each group of mice and changes in typical symptoms of obesity asthma. Within 24 hours after the last challenge, a fully automated biochemical analyzer was used to detect the four items of blood lipids and the classified count of inflammatory cells in alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Hematoxylin- eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the morphological changes of lung tissue and abdominal fat in mice. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in BALF and serum of mice, as well as the levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β)、Interleukin-13(IL-13)and mouse thymus activation regulating chemokine (CCL17) in lung tissue. The levels of IL-17A+ILC3 and IL-22+ILC3 cells in lung tissue and peripheral blood of mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot was used to detect the expression of P-STAT3 protein in lung tissue. Results: Compared with the model group, the general state and typical obese asthma symptoms in the middle and high dose groups of Juanxiao decoction were obviously improved. Pathological staining showed that the airway inflammatory cells infiltrated and the airway wall thickened in the model group. However, compared with the model group, the lung inflammation in dexamethasone group and Juanxiao decoction group was improved, especially in the middle and high dose groups. The levels of IL-1β, IL-17A+ILC3, IL-13 and CCL17 in lung tissue of mice in model group were higher than those in normal group (p<0.05), while the proportion of IL-22ILC3 and the expression of P-STAT3 were significantly lower than those in normal group(p <0.01,p<0.05). After the intervention of middle and high dose of Juanxiao decoction, the levels of IL-1β, 17A+ILC3, IL-13 and CCL17 decreased significantly(p<0.05,p<0.01,p<0.001)and the the proportion of IL-22ILC3 and the expression of P-STAT3 increased significantly(p<0.05,p<0.01,p<0.001).Conclusion: Juanxiao decoction can alleviate lung inflammation and allergic reaction in obese asthmatic mice, and improve the inflammatory environment of the body, and its mechanism may be related to regulating the secretion of cytokines by ILC3.

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    • Adra1a regulates LPS-induced inflammation in primary hepatocytes of Lbp-/-mice

      MI Chuanliang, FU Bin, LI Sidi, CHEN Zhida, GUO Zhongkun, WANG Kezhou

      Abstract:

      Objective To Explore the Adra1a regulation of inflammatory response in primary hepatocytes of LBP knockout mice (Lbp-/-) induced by LPS. Method Using two-step perfusion method to extract primary hepatocytes and constracting an primary hepatocyte inflammation model from WT group and Lbp-/- group. Inhibition of Adra1a expression in Lbp-/- mouse primary hepatocytes by adding inhibitor prazosin and transfecting siRNA .The inhibitor method divided the cells into control group (blank control), LPS group (LPS stimulation), and inhibitor piperazine group (LPS stimulation added after 1 hour of prazosin intervention). The method of siRNA transfection divided primary hepatocytes into four groups: control group (blank control), LPS group (LPS stimulation for 12 hours), negative control group (si-NC interference for 12 hours followed by LPS stimulation for 12 hours), and interference group (si-adra1a interference for 12 hours followed by LPS stimulation for 12 hours). The primary hepatocytes of WT mice were divided into two groups: the control group (blank control) and the LPS group (LPS stimulation for 12 hours). This study used WT type and Lbp-/- type mouse primary liver cells as the research subjects to verify the changes of Adra1a under LPS stimulation using Western blot method. Experimental methods such as CCK8, qPCR, and Western blot were used to verify the improvement of inflammation and survival rate of primary liver cells in Lbp-/- mice treated with prazosin and si-adra1a. Results under LPS stimulation, the expression of Adra1a protein in primary hepatocytes of Lbp-/- mice was significantly increased (P < 0.01), while the wild-type did not change; The cell survival rate of the inhibitor prazosin group and the interference group was significantly increased (P < 0.01; P < 0.05); In the inhibitor prazosin group and interference group, the expression of inflammatory factors TNF-α、IL-1β significantly decreased (P < 0.01). The expression levels of proteins p-p38, p-ERK, and p-JNK related to cell damage and inflammation were also significantly reduced (P < 0.01). Conclusion upregulation of Adra1a expression in Lbp -/- mouse primary liver cells induced by LPS compensates for the role of lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) in conducting injury and inflammatory signals, inhibiting the expression of Adra1a gene can significantly reduce the occurrence of inflammation and cell damage in primary liver cells.

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    • Study on the effect of radiation on mouse salivary gland tissue damage based on NLRP3

      wuyuqi, huangguilin, xiaolijun, zhangmin, zhangnini

      Abstract:

      Objective: To study the effects of radiation on the morphology, function, and NLRP3 expression of mouse salivary gland tissue, and provide new ideas for repairing radiation-induced damage to salivary gland tissue. Methods: To establish a mouse model of radiation-induced submandibular gland injury and record the weight of drinking water. Salivary flow rate was detected, HE staining was used to observe the submandibular gland injury and Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to detect the expression of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 in the radiation-induced submandibular gland injury of mice at 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after radiation. Results: With the accumulation of time, the amount of water consumed by the radiation group mice gradually increased, the salivary flow rate decreased, and inflammatory cells in the submandibular gland continued to increase. acinar cells gradually showed lesions such as nuclear pyknosis and vacuolization. At 7 and 14 days after radiation, the expression levels of NLRP3 and Caspase-1 protein and gene in the radiation group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Radiation can induce damage to mouse submandibular gland tissue and activate NLRP3 inflammasome to increase its expression level.

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    • Study on the efficacy of 1470 nm semiconductor laser therapy instrument for canine prostatectomy

      HUANG Heng, PAN Yongming, HUANG Junjie, ZHANG Hui, YU Chen, CHEN Minli, XU Qingfeng, ZHENG Guo

      Abstract:

      Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of 1470 nm semiconductor laser therapeutic instrument (referred to as curestar therapeutic instrument) for prostatectomy in Beagle dogs. Method 28 adult male Beagle dogs were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham group (n=3), experimental group (n=15), and control group (n=10). The experimental group was further divided into 3 subgroups: 120 W/50 W, 150 W/50 W, and 160 W/50 W for vaporization cutting/coagulation hemostasis, while the control group was divided into 2 subgroups: 120 W/50 W and 150 W/50 W. 5 in each subgroup. Both the experimental group and the control group underwent canine prostatectomy through the entrance of the bladder neck under electrocision. The operational suitability and effectiveness of the product during surgery were observed. After the operation, the general condition of the dogs was observed, and blood biochemical and hematological indicators were measured at before, immediately, 3 days, 7 days, and 28 days after operation. At 1h and 4 weeks after surgery, B-ultrasound and electric resection were performed under anesthesia to observe the condition of the urethra and prostate, and the prostatic tissue was subjected to H&E staining for pathological observation. The thickness of the coagulation layer at 1h after the operation and the repair of the urethelial epithelium at 4 weeks were analyzed. Results During the operation, the experimental and control groups had good operability and showed good vaporization cutting and coagulation hemostasis performance. After the operation, there were no significant effects on the general condition, blood biochemical, and hematological indicators of the dogs. Ultrasound showed that the urethral expansion was visible immediately after the operation, and the echo of the urethral epithelium was slightly enhanced. At 4 weeks, the prostate tissue was slightly low-echo with uniformly distributed small point-like echoes inside, and the capsule was linearly high-echo, consistent with the sham group. The measurement and analysis showed that the weight of the vaporized prostate tissue in the experimental and control groups was about 0.91-1.33 g, with a resection rate of 17.11-20.27 %. And as the power of vaporization cutting increases, the laser emission time gradually decreases, while the vaporization cutting speed and efficiency both increase.However, there was no significant difference between the experimental and control groups (P>0.05). Under the electrocision microscope, a burn-like change was observed in the surgical wounds of the prostate urethra in the experimental group and the control group at 1 h after surgery, and the boundary between the wound and the normal urothelium was clearly visible. At 4 weeks, the urothelium of the prostate had been repaired and flattened, and the boundary with the surrounding normal urothelium was blurred. Similarly, pathological observations also showed that at 1 h after surgery, both the experimental and control groups showed significant damage to the prostate urethral orifice, with a small amount of carbonization and coagulative necrosis on the surface of the wound, a small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration, and a coagulation layer thickness of about 0.4 mm. At 4 weeks, the prostate urethral morphology of the sham group was normal, while the experimental group and the control group both showed new epithelial growth covering the wound, with uniform thickness and no coagulative necrosis tissue attached to the wound. Mild inflammatory reaction was still present in the surrounding area, fibroblast proliferation was obvious, and stromal and epithelial cell proliferation was visible in the surrounding prostate, some of which showed squamous metaplasia. The prostate capsule was intact and the morphology of the surrounding nerves and blood vessels was normal. Conclusion The curestar therapy instrument is effective for prostatectomy in Beagle dogs, with good vaporization cutting and coagulation hemostasis performance, and there was no significant difference in postoperative physiological indicators compared to the sham group.

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    • Characteristics燼nd營nnovations爄n燛ducation爋f爈aboratory animal science 爄n燭raditional燙hinese燤edicine燙olleges燼nd燯niversities

      ZHANG Min, LIU Yanyun, GU Xin, TIAN Daizhi, YANG Yang

      Abstract:

      Laboratory animal science plays燼燾rucial爎ole爄n爐he爀ducation燼nd爐raining爋f爉edical爏tudents.燭o爀nsure爐he爀ffective爐eaching爋f爈aboratory animal science爄n燙hinese爉edicine爄nstitutions,爄t爄s爄mperative爐o爄ncorporate爐he爌rinciples爋f燙hinese爉edicine燾haracteristics燼nd爄nnovation.燭his爌edagogical燼pproach燼ims爐o爀nrich爐raditional燾ultural爈iteracy爓ithin燙hinese爉edicine燼nd爁oster爏tudents'燾apacities爁or爄nnovation燼nd燾ritical爐hinking.燭he燿aily爐eaching爋f爈aboratory animal science爏hould爀ncompass爒arious爀ducational燼spects,爄ncluding爄nheritance爀ducation,爀thical爀ducation,爉igration爀ducation,爀xploration爀ducation,爄nspiration爀ducation,燼nd爀xtension爀ducation.燘y爄ntegrating爐hese燾omponents燼nd爀mphasizing爐he爄ntersections爋f燙hinese爉edicine爓ith爈aboratory animal science,爄mportant燼reas爏uch燼s燼nimal爓elfare爄n燙hinese爉edicine爎esearch,爐he燼pplication爋f燙hinese爉edicine爐heories爄n燼nimal爀xperiments,燾onsiderations爁or燼nimal爉odels爄n燙hinese爉edicine,燼nd爐he爏election爋f爀xperimental燼nimal爏pecies,燾an燽e燼ddressed.燗dditionally,爐his燼pproach爌rovides爂uidance爁or爊ew燿evelopment燿irections燼nd燾ultivates爏tudents'爏cientific爎esearch,爄nnovation,燼nd爌ractical燼bilities爀ffectively.燭he爌rimary爋bjective爋f爐his爌rogram爄s爐o爊urture爏cientific爄nnovation燼nd爌ractical燾ompetence燼mong爏tudents爓hile爌rioritizing爐he爏uperior爍uality爋f爄nnovative爀ducation爓ithin爐he燾ontext爋f燙hinese爉edicine.燬uch爀fforts爋ffer燼爏olid爁oundation爁or燼dvancing爄ndigenous爉edical爌ractices燼nd爊urturing燼爊ew爂eneration爋f爌rofessionals燿edicated爐o爌reserving爐raditional爉edicine.

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    • Effects of acute sleep deprivation on behavior and synaptic biomarker expression in rats at different times

      zhangshibin, wang lu, wang chu, guo pengcheng, yan xusheng, huo dongsheng, yang zhanjun, wang yanguo, jia jianxin

      Abstract:

      Objective: To investigate the effects of acute sleep deprivation on the behavior and synaptic protein expression in rats at different times. Methods: Seventy healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, control group, different time sleep deprivation groups (24 hour, 48 hour, 72 hour, 96 hour, 120 hour and 144 hour). The sleep deprivation rat model was established by modified multi-platform water environment sleep deprivation method. Spatial learning and memory was detected by Morris water maze, anxiety was detected by open field test, and the morphology and quantity of hippocampal neurons were observed by Nissl staining. Western blotting and Real-time PCR determined the expressions of synaptophysin (SYN), post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rats. Results: Compared with the control group, the numbers of standing and modification all significantly increased accompanied by the prolongation of sleep deprivation time (P<0.05). The escape latency and path length significantly increased in rats in the 120 h and 144 h groups (P<0.05), while the number of crossing platforms and the percentage of target quadrant time all significantly decreased (P<0.01), and were negatively correlated with sleep deprivation time. The expression levels of BDNF, SYN and PSD-95 all significantly decreased accompanied by the prolongation of sleep deprivation time (P<0.01), and was negatively correlated with sleep deprivation time. Conclusion: With the increase of sleep deprivation time, cognitive dysfunction and anxiety gradually deteriorated, which may be related to decrease in expression level of synaptic biomarkers.

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    • Exploring the mechanism of Inonotus obliquus extract in treating Crohn?s disease based on proteomics

      han lihua, Zhao Xiaoru, Peng Lili, Hao Miao, Yuan Hongxia

      Abstract:

      Objectives To investigate the effect of Inonotus obliquus extract on Crohn's disease and its mechanism by proteomics technology. Methods Crohn's disease (CD) model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). A total of 48 SD male rats were randomized into control, model, mesalazine (225 mg/kg), and low-dose (200 mg/kg), medium-dose (400 mg/kg), high-dose (800 mg/kg) Inonotus obliquus groups. The disease activity index (DAI) score and the colonic mucosal injury index (CMDI) score were assessed after one week of drug intervention. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes in the colon, and ELISA was used to detect the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the blood. Proteins were extracted from the colonic tissues of the control group, model group, and Inonotus obliquus extract high-dose group, and bioinformatics analysis was performed for the proteins identified by quantitative proteomics. Finally, WB and RT-PCR were employed to verify the key proteins. Results The Inonotus obliquus extract improved the symptoms of colitis induced by TNBS in rat, and decrease the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the blood. Proteomic tests showed that there were 199 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the Inonotus obliquus extract high-dose group and the model group, of which 63 DEPs were related to CD. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these 63 DEPs were mainly involved in NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, necroptosis, and other pathways. Consistent with proteomic results, expressions of Vdac1 and Trpv2 were confirmed by WB and RT-PCR in colon tissue. Conclusion Inonotus obliquus extract may regulate NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, calcium signaling pathway, and necroptosis by interfering with the expression of Vdac1 and Trpv2, so as to achieve the effect of treating CD.

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    • The research progress of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of breast cancer depression and co -disease

      PENG Mengwei, WU Yaosong, LIU Gaoyuan, KUANG Luoyi, LUO Zilong, CHEN Yulong, LIU Yan

      Abstract:

      Pathological mood changes, mainly depression, occurring during the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer are clinically called breast cancer related depression(BCRD). A large number of epidemiology and clinical studies have confirmed that BCRD is complex, difficult to treat,and has a poor prognosis. Most of the existing clinical treatments are postoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer and antidepressant drugs, which treats breast cancer and depression as two independent diseases,with many defects such as low efficiency and strong adverse reactions. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM)has a unique value in the prevention and treatment of breast cancer-related depression by virtue of its significant advantage of regulating multiple pathways and targets with its multiple components at the same time.In this paper,we review the mechanism of BRCD and the therapeutic mechanism of TCM from the aspects of neurological disorders, inflammatory immune response, and intestinal flora disorders, with a view to providing certain references for the clinical application and research of TCM in the treatment of BCRD.

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    • Study on the therapeutic effect of Qingre Jiedu formula on gout mice based on immune inflammation and intestinal microecology

      hexianshun, linkun, weiyurou, tianjiaqing, jiangyulai, weitengfei, lintianye, hemincong, weiqiushi

      Abstract:

      Objective: To explore the anti-inflammatory effect of Qingre Jiedu(QRJD) Formula on gout mice and its effect on gut microbiota.Method: Forty 20-22 g C57BL/6 were divided into Control group(CON), model group(MOD), allopurinol group(Allo), QRJD Formula group(QRJD), and ig 10 g/ 0.1ml carboxymethyl cellulose in blank group every morning from 1 to 28 days. Hyperuricemia mouse model was prepared by potassium oxyazinic acid (500 mg/kg) + yeast extract (10 g/kg) suspension intragaically. On the 29th day, 80ul sterile carboxymethyl cellulose was injected into the left ankle of mice in the CON group under isoflurane anesthesia, and gouty arthritis model was prepared by injecting the same amount of sodium urate solution into the left ankle of mice in the other groups. At the same time, each group was treated with corresponding drugs every day. On the 35th day, samples were taken from mice who had been fasting for 6 hours without water. Blood indexes such as uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen were detected. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed on ankle joints. The cecum contents of mice were collected and the changes of gut microbiota were detected by 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing method. Results: ① After 7 days of treatment, compared with MOD group, QRJD formula can effectively reduce the concentrations of blood uric acid (P < 0.001), creatinine (P < 0.001) and urea nitrogen (P < 0.05), and effectively protect renal function; ② The pathological results indicated that compared with the MOD group, HE staining showed that the synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration were reduced in the QRJD formula group after treatment. It was found that the cartilage arrangement of the compound was more orderly than before, the cartilage destruction was less than that of the MOD group, and no matrix loss was observed.③ The immunohistochemical results of ankle joint indicated that IL-10 and TGF-β1 were not significantly increased in CON group and MOD group; Compared with MOD group, the expressions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 of QRJD recipe were increased (P < 0.05).④ In terms of biodiversity, there was no significant difference in α diversity among the four groups (P < 0.05), while β-diversity was found to be more similar to the CON group (P=0.001).⑤Compared to the CON group, the MOD group exhibited increased abundances (P < 0.05) of Ruminococcaceae spp., Dubosiella sp., Tyzzerella sp., Ileibacterium sp.and Bacteroidales spp.In contrast to the MOD group, the QRJD group showed elevated abundances (P < 0.05) of Lactobacillus sp., Ligilactobacillus sp., and Bacteroides sp. Furthermore, the interaction network of the gut microbiota indicated mutual interactions among these microorganisms.⑥In the correlation analysis between gut microbiota and renal function, as well as anti-inflammatory factors, it was observed that the relative abundance of Dubosiella sp., Tyzzerella sp.and Bacteroidales spp. was significantly positively correlated with SUA and SCR (P < 0.05). On the other hand, Lactobacillus sp., Ligilactobacillus sp., and Mitochondria spp. exhibited a positive correlation with anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and TGF-β1, with a more significant association observed with TGF-β1 (P < 0.05).⑦COG function prediction suggested that the functions of QRJD formula group were concentrated on inorganic ion transport and metabolism, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, etc. Conclusions: QRJD effectively modulates immune inflammation and gut microbiota dysbiosis, thereby treating gout. It is hypothesized that its mechanism of gout prevention and treatment involves the regulation of gut microbiota diversity and abundance, as well as the control of the abundance of differential bacterial species such as Ruminococcaceae spp., Dubosiella sp.and Lactobacillus sp. to achieve the goal of gout therapy.

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    • Research progress on the involvement of macrophages in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury mediated by NF-κB signaling pathway

      lishilong, wanghe

      Abstract:

      Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury(MIRI)has become one of the most serious complications affecting the clinical outcome of patients with cardiovascular diseases. The immune inflammatory response of macrophages is closely related to the occurrence and development of MIRI.Many studies have shown that the NF-κB signaling pathway can participate in MIRI regulation by influencing the polarization and inflammatory state of macrophages, pyrodeath, infiltration and other functions, and is a potential target for MIRI therapy.Therefore, this article will review the research progress of NF-κB signaling pathway between macrophage function and MIRI regulation.

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    • Comparison of liver and adrenal orthotopic transplantation models of neuroblastoma

      chen Hongxia, Tan Zhigang, Lin Huiran, Feng Luping, Zheng Chuya, Liao Wenfeng, Zeng Rufeng, Liu Jinxin, Zhuo Zhenjian

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】Objective The Neuroblastoma (NB) liver transplantation model was established and compared with the adrenal orthotopic transplantation model to explore the characteristics of the model.. Methods 5×105 (SK-N-SH) cells was implanted into the left lobe of mouse liver along the long axis of liver lobe with a micro-injection needle. The growth, metastasis, expression of related genes and histopathological changes of tumor were detected after the modeling. Results The tumor formation rate of mice inoculated with tumor cells reached 100% after 21 days, and the tumor growth, metastasis, related gene expression and pathological characteristics were obvious. Conclusion In this paper, neuroblastoma liver transplantation model was successfully constructed by a relatively simple surgical modeling method, which provides more ideal model choices for future scientific experiments of NB researchers.

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    • A comparative study of two methods for the clearance of macrophages from the rat endometrium

      XIA Liangjun, CUI Chuting, LI Junwei, CHENG Jie, XIA Youbing

      Abstract:

      Objectives A comparison of different administration routes of clodronate disodium liposomes to determine which is the most effective method of rat endometrial macrophage clearance. Methods Female 8-week-old SD rats were randomly divided into the unilateral control group (injected 100μL PBS liposomes into the left uterine cavity), unilateral clearance group (injected 100μL clodronate liposomes into the right uterine cavity), bilateral control group (injected 100 μL PBS liposomes into the bilateral intrauterine), bilateral clearance group (injected 100 μL clodronate liposomes into the bilateral intrauterine), and whole-body control group (injected 500 μL PBS liposomes into the caudal vein ) and whole-body clearance group (injected 500 μL clodronate liposomes into the caudal vein). Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was used to observe the morphology and structure of uterine and ovarian tissues, immunohistochemistry was used to observe the positive presence of macrophages in uterine and ovarian tissues, and flow cytometry was used to detect changes of the macrophages cell counts in uterine and ovarian tissues. Results There was no significant difference in the structure and morphology of the uterus and ovary among all groups. Immunohistochemical staining showed that compared to the control group, the positive expression of uterine macrophages in unilateral and bilateral clearance groups was significantly decreased (P<0.001), and had no effect on the accumulation of macrophages in the ovary (P>0.05). The numbers of macrophages in both uterine and ovarian tissues decreased of whole-body clearance group (P<0.01, P<0.01). Compared with unilateral and bilateral clearance groups, whole-body clearance group had a greater effect on the positive expression of macrophages in ovarian tissues (P<0.05). Flow cytometry showed that compared with the control group, the percentage of macrophages in the uterine tissue was significantly reduced in each clearance group (P<0.001, P<0.001, P<0.05). Compared to the whole-body clearance group, the clearance effect of endometrial macrophages was better in the unilateral and bilateral clearance groups (P<0.05,P<0.05). In addition, the number of macrophages in ovarian tissue decreased in all clearance groups compared to the control group. The decrease in macrophage number was most pronounced in the whole-body clearance group (P<0.05), and there was no statistically significant difference between the unilateral and bilateral clearance groups compared with the control group (P>0.05).

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    • Effect of Alzheimer"s disease on auditory function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice

      GUI Fei, SONG Dan-dan, WANG Hai-yan, SUN Xiao-pin, Yang Lei

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the hearing and cochlear himorphological changes in APP/PS1 transgenic mice during the process of AD, and to determine whether the occurrence and development of AD will affect their hearing function. Methods APP/PS1 transgenic mice and littermates wild type mice were selected at the age of 4, 8 and 12 months. The changes of auditory function in APP/PS1 transgenic mice at different months were detected by immunofluorescence staining and auditory brainstem response (ABR). Results Compared with the control group, the number of Aβ plaques in the hippocampus of 4-month-old APP/PS1 transgenic mice was significantly increased, indicating that AD symptoms were already present at this time. At the age of 4, 8 and 12 months, there was no significant difference in the hearing threshold between APP/PS1 transgenic mice and wild type mice. The histomorphological examination of the cochlea showed that there was no significant difference in the key cells of the inner ear such as cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion between the two groups of mice. ABR test results of APP/PS1 transgenic mice and littermate wild-type mice showed that the hearing threshold of both mice increased significantly with age, both of them showed age-related hearing loss. Conclusion There is age-related hearing loss in APP/PS1 transgenic mice, but the occurrence and development of AD has little effect on the hearing function of APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

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    • Improvement of Depressive-like Behavior in Hemerocallis citrina Baroni Using a Zebrafish Model

      Zheng Hanwen, Wang ZiHang, Liu Xinyue, Yu Jiawei, Alberto Carlos Pires Dias, Wang Qiong

      Abstract:

      Abstract OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the potential positive effects of the alcoholic extract of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni on depressive behaviors in zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) induced by reserpine. METHODS: Zebrafish larvae were divided into various groups, which included a control group, a model group, a model group with fluoxetine (a positive drug), a model group with a low dose of HCE (1.5 mg/L), a model group with a medium dose of HCE (3 mg/L), and a model group with a high dose of HCE (4.5 mg/L). Depression-like behaviors were analyzed using sound and light stimulation. RT-qPCR was utilized to investigate the effects of the alcoholic extracts of HCE on depression-related astrocyte markers (GFAP, C3, C4B, EMP-1, S100α-10) as well as the neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor genes (P75, TrkB). RESULTS: In comparison to the control group, the model group demonstrated significantly shorter movement distance and reduced movement time under sound and light stimulation (P<0.05, P<0.0001). Following the administration of the alcoholic extract of HCE, zebrafish larvae exhibited significantly heightened sensitivity to light and sound stimulation when compared to the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Astrocyte marker genes were up-regulated in the zebrafish brain in the model group compared to the control group (P<0.01). However, when the model group was administered with the alcoholic extract, the expression of astrocyte markers was significantly down-regulated compared to the model group (P<0.01). Neurotrophic factor and its receptor genes (BDNF, P75, TrkB) were down-regulated in the zebrafish brain in the model group compared to the control group (P<0.01). However, in the group administered with Brassica campestris alcoholic extract, the expression of BDNF, P75, and TrkB was significantly up-regulated compared to the model group (P<0.001). These findings suggest that the alcoholic extract of HCE suppresses the inflammatory response caused by astrocyte activation and promotes the production of neurotrophic factors and their receptor genes, thereby exerting an ameliorative effect on depression. CONCLUSION: Alcoholic extracts of HCE can improve depression-like behavioral changes induced by reserpine in zebrafish larvae . They reduce the expression of astrocyte markers in the zebrafish brain and promote the production of neurotrophic factors and their receptor genes, playing an antidepressant role.

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    • Establishment and validation of a liver injury model in mice induced by chronic low-dose exposure to atrazine

      ZHU Yu, SU Ying-shi, HE Bao-guo, LIU Xi, QIN Lei

      Abstract:

      Objective To establish a model of long-term atrazine (ATR)-induced liver injury in mice and to evaluate the hepatotoxic effects induced by ATR. Methods C57BL/6-N male mice were randomly divided into drinking control group, 1.5mg/L and 150mg/L ATR dose groups. Serum liver function biochemical indexes and inflammatory factors were detected after 35 and 63 d, hepatosomatic ratio was calculated, and histopathology and ultrastructure of the liver were observed. The levels of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity, the activities of major phase I metabolic enzymes and phase II detoxification enzymes, the expression of related proteins in liver tissues were detected. Results Compared with control group, AST/ALT ratio, pro-inflammatory factors CCL2, TNF-α and IL-6, H2O2 content and the activities of metabolic enzymes NCR, CYPb5 and UDPGT in ATR groups had significant changes (P < 0.05). In 150mg/L ATR group, GGT content, MDA level of peroxide and CYP1A2 expression were significantly increased (P < 0.01), while GSH content was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, hepatocyte injury and mitochondrial vacuolation were more serious. Conclusions In a mouse model of low-dose ATR- liver injury, both 1.5 mg/L and 150 mg/L atrazine exposure induced liver injury in mice, with 150 mg/L ATR inducing greater metabolic toxicity in the liver after 63 d.

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    • Research progress on roles of ferroptosis in chemotherapy resistance of leukemia

      anlijuan, haozheng

      Abstract:

      Chemotherapy resistance in leukemia is an urgent clinical therapeutic challenge. Ferroptosis is a unique mode of cell death driven by iron-dependent phospholipid peroxidation. Since leukemia is characterised by increased oxidative stress and iron overload, it can be hypothesised that leukemia cells are susceptible to ferroptosis, suggesting therapeutic potential. In recent years, ferroptosis has been extensively studied and used in the treatment of various types of leukemia. Several studies have demonstrated the association between the regulatory pathways of ferroptosis and the mechanisms of leukemia drug resistance. The induction of ferroptosis through different pathways can effectively reduce the resistance of various types of leukemia cells to chemotherapeutic drugs, and thus improve the clinical efficacy. This article summarizes the regulatory mechanisms of ferroptosis, analyzes in detail the association between oxidative stress pathways and iron metabolism pathways of ferroptosis and the mechanism of leukemia drug resistance, and compiles the experimental studies and clinical applications of ferroptosis in the treatment of various types of drug-resistant leukemias, with the aim of providing new ideas and directions for the study of ferroptosis and a new strategy to reverse chemotherapy resistance for leukemia patients in the future.

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    • Analysis on the Construction and Practice of Animal Biosafety Level-3(ABSL-3)Simulated Laboratory

      Li Xiaoyan, Lu Xuancheng, Lu Shuangshuang, Wang Jiaqi, Kalibixiati Aimulajiang, Liu Mei, Liu Keliang, Zainawudong·Yushan

      Abstract:

      ABSL-3 laboratory is Animal Biosafety Level-3 laboratory where highly pathogenic microorganisms can be done. In recent years, with the continuous emergence of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, high-level biosafety laboratories have played an increasingly important role in the hardware support of pathogenic mechanism, drug and vaccine research and development. The demand for ABSL-3 laboratories is increasing year by year. At the same time, there is also an increasing demand for personnel competence of working in ABSL-3 laboratories. The standardization of pre-service training has become an important guarantee to reduce the risk of personnel working in the ABSL-3 laboratory. The systematized, normalized and standardized training work needs to be carried out in a specific place. Simulated laboratory is the best place. Therefore, it is necessary to establish animal biosafety level-3 simulated laboratory and establish scientific and effective operating standards and mechanisms. This paper introduces the design, construction, operation and function of ABSL-3 simulated laboratory.

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    • Measurement and Comparative Analysis of Blood Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetes Chinese Hamster in the SHANXI MU Colony

      yangyuting, yangyichun, weibingyan, wujianqin, zhangruihu, chenzhaoyang

      Abstract:

      Objective: Investigate the blood physiological and biochemical changes in the spontaneously developed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) animal model of the SHANXI MU colony inbred strain established by the research team in the preliminary stage. Methods: A cohort of spontaneously developed T2DM Chinese hamsters and normal hamsters, each comprising 10 individuals at 12 months of age, were selected for the study. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed using the Sysmex XT automated hematology analyzer and the Hitachi fully automatic biochemical analyzer to measure and statistically analyze 15 physiological parameters and 16 biochemical indicators in the blood. Results: Compared with the control group, WBC, RBC, PLT, HGB, ALT, AST, GLU, TC, TG and UA in diabetic group were significantly different(P < 0.05). Conclusion: The blood physiological and biochemical indexes of the Chinese hamster spontaneous T2DM model established by the research group in the early stage were detected, and the changes were in line with the trend of human T2DM incidence, which provided basic data for the application and application of the model.

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    • Progress in the optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 technology for the construction of genetically modified mouse models

      wangyu, wuyong, liangchunnan, fanchangfa

      Abstract:

      The rise of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has driven the development of various fields of life science. With the continuous deepening of its understanding, people have made multiple improvements and optimizations to adapt to different application scenarios. The optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 technology has also brought many breakthroughs in the production of genetically modified mouse models. This article briefly reviews the development process of CRISPR/Cas9 technology, and summarizes optimization strategies at the level of CRISPR/Cas9 element optimization, construction of conditional knockout/knockin gene modified mouse models, and delivery systems for CRISPR/Cas9 elements and HDR templates. It looks forward to the future development of this technology.

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    • The correlation of periodontitis and central nervous system inflammation in hypobaric hypoxia environment at plateau

      chen lu, jiang xiao xia, zhu ling ling

      Abstract:

      In recent years, with the increasing number of people active in the plateau and mountainous areas, high altitude exposure has become increasingly common, and many patients with underlying diseases are affected by the hypobaric hypoxia of the plateau environment, which further aggravates the disease process and even leads to cognitive disorders. Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease that induces periodontal local inflammatory responses and even causes central nervous system inflammation. At high altitudes, the body suffers from decreased immunity and tissue hypoxia, which can promote the occurrence and development of periodontitis and may even increase the risk of periodontitis leading to central nervous system inflammation. With the deepening of plateau medicine research, the relationship between periodontitis and central nervous system inflammation in the hypobaric hypoxia of plateau environment has attracted more and more attention. This work reviews the research progress of periodontitis and central nervous system inflammation and discusses the correlation between periodontitis and central nervous system inflammation in the hypobaric hypoxia environment at plateau.

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    • Research progress of exercise on muscular atrophy based on mitochondrial quality Control

      GUO Xiaojing, WANG Yan

      Abstract:

      Skeletal muscle wasting refers to the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. Mitochondrial quality control (MQC) is the basis for maintaining normal physiological mitochondrial function, which mainly involves the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics (fission/fusion) and mitophagy. It maintains muscle homeostasis by regulating the relative stability of mitochondrial shape, quantity and quality. As an economical and effective treatment for muscular atrophy, exercise intervention has been widely used, but the relationship between exercise intervention and MQC is not clear. This paper discusses the role of mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy in skeletal muscle atrophy and related molecular targets, and thoroughly analyzes the mechanism of MQC-mediated exercise in improving skeletal muscle atrophy caused by aging, disuse, and cancer cachexia, in order to provide theoretical guidance for exercise intervention in skeletal muscle atrophy.

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    • A comparative study of enzymatic digestion methods for the preparation of single cell suspensions from the lamina propria of the mouse intestine

      zengqin, liangying, wangxinhui, yanlei, wangxiangpeng, yangjiayi, yurenhuan

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the best digestion method for the preparation of single cell suspensions from mouse small intestinal lamina propria. Methods Ten mouse small intestines of uniform length were collected and randomly divided into two groups. Each group prepared the lamina propria single cell suspensions by enzymatic digestion with collagenase A or collagenase VIII, and compared the effects of these two enzymatic digestion methods on the cell yield, cell activity and cell surface antigen of the single cell suspensions, and then the single cell suspensions prepared by the superior enzymatic digestion method were subjected to flow assay. Results Compared to collagenase VIII-based enzymatic digestion, collagenase A-based enzymatic digestion resulted in higher cell yields (9.48 ?1.10) ?109 vs. (4.18 ?1.02) ?109, live cell proportions (86.36 ?3.32) % vs. (61.62 ?10.93) % and active CD45 cells (57.19 ?5.11) ) % vs (26.01?1.44) %, active CD3 cells (8.73?.89) % vs (4.52?.49) %, active CD4 cells (6.19?.09) % vs (3.22?.91) % and active B220 cells (15.06?.27) % vs (5.07?.20) %, providing high quality cells for subsequent flow assays. Conclusion The collagenase A-based enzymatic digestion method is more suitable for the preparation of single cell suspensions from the lamina propria of the mouse small intestine.

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    • Establishment of chimeric rabbits with FOXN1 gene knockout

      liu tian ping, li gui ling, liu ke, chen bang zhu, wang gang, gu wei wang

      Abstract:

      Objective The aim of this study was to establish F0 generation chimeric rabbits with FOXN1 gene knockout to explore methods for in vivo conservation of immunodeficient rabbits in a conventional housing environment. Methods Initially, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology was employed to inject the constructed sgRNA and Cas9 protein into a single cell of rabbit two-cell stage embryos to obtain chimeric embryos with FOXN1 gene editing. Subsequently, the embryos were transferred into surrogate does. Finally, the F0 generation offspring were genotyped using PCR and Sanger sequencing, and their growth and development in a conventional housing environment were observed. Results The PCR and Sanger sequencing results confirmed the successful establishment of chimeric rabbits with FOXN1 gene knockout. Observation revealed that the chimeras exhibited normal growth and development in a conventional environment without any immunodeficient phenotypes. Conclusion This study has initially established a chimeric rabbit model with FOXN1 gene knockout, which can grow and develop normally in ordinary environments. This lays the foundation for further breeding of FOXN1 immunodeficient rabbits in the future.

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    • Characterisation of the immune microenvironment and immunotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma: mechanisms, challenges and prospects

      wuxueliang

      Abstract:

      Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignant tumour with biliary epithelial features. Currently, early diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma is difficult and the outcome of treatment is poor. Its microenvironment includes abundant fibrotic mesenchyme and a variety of cell types, and these components promote the development and metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma by interacting with tumour cells through mechanisms such as facilitating migration, suppressing immune response and inducing angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Immunotherapy is one of the important means of current tumour treatment, and immunotherapy for cholangiocarcinoma has made some progress. This article reviews the characteristics of the immune microenvironment of cholangiocarcinoma, its relationship with immunotherapy and cutting-edge therapeutic strategies.

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    • RANBP9 targeted the expression of TGF-β1 induced the cell apoptosis in colorectal cancer Colo320 Cell

      wuxueliang

      Abstract:

      objective: To investigate Ran binding protein in microtubule-organization center (RANBP9) targeted the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its effect on colorectal cancer Colo320 cell apoptosis. Methods: The expression data of RANBP9 (gene)? in 625 cases of colon cancer tissues and 20 cases of normal colon tissues in the TCGA database (TCGA) were analyzed. KMPLOT was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of RANBP9 and the survival time of colon cancer patients. The human protein immunohistochemistry database was used to analyze the expression of TGF-β1 in normal colon tissues and colon cancer tissues. The UALCAN database was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 and the survival of colon cancer patients.The dual luciferase experiment analyzes the relationship between RANBP9 and TGF-β1.The pcDNA3.1-GFP-RANBP9 and pcDNA3.1-GFP-RANBP9-NC were transfected into the cells in the experimental group and the control group,respectively. And the normal group of cells will be established without transfection operation and routinely cultured.MTT method was used to detect the growth viability of each group of cells, flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptotic rate of each group of cells, JC-1 staining was used to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential of each group of cells, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of RANBP9 and TGF-β1 in each group of cells. Results: The expression of RANBP9 in colon cancer tissue was significantly reduced. Compared with patients with low RANBP9 expression, colon cancer patients with high RANBP9 expression had a higher survival curve, and the expression of TGF-β1 in colon cancer tissue was significantly increased. Compared with patients with high TGF-β1 expression, patients with low TGF-β1 expression had a higher survival curve, and the differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05).In colon cancer, RANBP9 can target the expression of TGF-β1. Compared with the normal group, the growth viability of the experimental group, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the expression of TGF-β1 were significantly down-regulated, and the apoptosis rate and the expression of RANBP9 were significantly increased. The differences were statistically significant (all P<0.05).Conclusion: RANBP9 can target the expression of TGF-β1, promote the growth of colon cancer cell Colo320 and decrease the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induce its apoptosis.

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    • Hypoglycemic effect of Chinese Yam polysaccharide on DEX-induced IR-3T3-L1 fat cell

      LIU Xinyue, WANG Fengzhong, ZHENG Hanwen, Alberto Carlos Pires Dias, FAN Bei, Wang Qiong

      Abstract:

      Objective To examine the hypoglycemic effect of Chinese yam polysaccharide on 3T3-L1 insulin resistance cell model. Methods After the creation of the IR-3T3-L1 cell model stimulated by DEX (1 μmol/L). Followed the Chinese yam polysaccharide treatment, the glucose intake and the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, GSH-Px, MDA, HK and PK were measured. Additionally, the AMPK-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway"s associated genes were identified using qRT-PCR. Results The glucose consumption of IR-3T3-L1 cells was considerably decreased after 48 hours of treatment with 1 μmol/L DEX compared to the control group (P < 0.01), and the reduction persisted for 60 hours. When CYPS at 0.05, 0.15, and 0.45 mg/mL was applied to IR-3T3-L1 cells, the following outcomes were observed: the significantly increased glucose consumption (P < 0.01), HK, PK, GSH-Px enzyme activities (P < 0.01), and HDL-C content (P < 0.01). There was a reduction in the MDA activity (P < 0.01) and the concentrations of TG, LDL-C, and T-CHO (P < 0.01). Additionally, CYPS administration dramatically decreased the levels of PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPK, IRS-2, PPARa, and Adiponectin mRNA expression (P < 0.05), and reduced the IRS-1, GSK-3β, ACC, and FAS mRNA expression levels (P < 0.01). Conclusions In IR-3T3-L1 cells, CYPS can reduce oxidative stress, control lipid metabolism disorders, and enhance DEX-induced glucose intake. The AMPK-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway"s associated genes may be connected to the process.

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    • Progress in the study of the mechanism of acupuncture in regulating ferroptosis after ischemic stroke

      XUE jing, GAO ying, WANG shu

      Abstract:

      Ischemic Stroke(IS)presents a complex pathogenesis,posing numerous challenges in treatment and rehabilitation.Acupuncture, as a traditional Chinese medicine treatment, has garnered widespread attention for its effectiveness in treating IS, particularly in regulating ferroptosis. Ferroptosis is a type of cell death dependent on iron and lipid peroxidation, closely linked to neurological impairment following IS. This article reviews the primary mechanisms of ferroptosis post-IS, emphasizing the interconnections between iron metabolism, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial damage, and ferroptosis. It further explores the regulatory mechanisms of acupuncture on ferroptosis after IS, including its roles in enhancing mitochondrial function, modulating iron metabolism, alleviating oxidative stress, suppressing inflammatory responses, and influencing various ferroptosis signaling pathways. This aims to provide more scientific evidence and theoretical support for comprehensive therapeutic strategies for IS.

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    • Analysis and reflection on the quarantine and supervision policy of imported experimental animals in Japan

      DING Ning, LIANG Jiaqi, FU Hongkun, WANG Ying, ZHU Daozhong, WANG Chunxia, REN Jiao, LIN Zhixiong, TAO Yufeng, MA Lidan, GAO Zhiqiang, WU Xiaowei, Yu haiqiong

      Abstract:

      Japan is an important trading partner of China's import and export of experimental animals, and its quarantine supervision policy of experimental animals is meticulous and strict. In this paper, experimental dogs, cats and monkeys are taken as examples to make an in-depth analysis of the regulatory policies of major experimental animals for export to Japan. Through the current experimental animal related laws and regulations, inbound and outbound management measures, experimental animal breeding production and management situation and import and export business trend thinking, from the perfect experimental animal laws and regulations and inbound and outbound management measures, safeguard security, improve the management level of experimental animal breeding and promote experimental animal import and export trade. In order to provide reference for comprehensively improving the level of production, use and management of laboratory animals in China and strengthening the work exchange of laboratory animals between China and Japan.

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    • Effects and comparison of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 depression and anxieti-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress in rats by regulating inflammation

      Bei Xueyi, Jiang Ning, Yao Caihong, Zhang Yiwen, Sun Xinran, Luo Yanqin, Li Liang, Xie Mengzhou, Liu Xinmin

      Abstract:

      Objective: To study the effect and comparison of ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1 on depression-like and anxiety-like behavior in chronic unpredictable stress-induced rats by regulating inflammation. Methods: Seventy SPF grade SD male rats were tested for sugar and water preference after 5 days of adaptation. The animals were divided into 7 groups according to the sugar and water preference index, namely blank control group, model group, positive drug group, ginsenoside Rg1 30 μmol/kg dose group, ginsenoside Rg1 60 μmol/kg dose group, ginsenoside Rb1 30 μmol/kg dose group, ginsenoside Rb1 60 μmol/kg dose group. Except for the blank control group, the other rats were randomly subjected to 1-2 different stimulating factors every day for a total of 35 days. On the 36th day, behavioral experiments such as sugar and water preference, open field experiment, novel environment feeding inhibition experiment, elevated cross maze experiment and forced swimming were conducted to investigate its anti-depression and anti-anxiety effects. The serum and hippocampal levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and serum corticosterone (CORT) were measured by Elisa. Result: Compared with model group, ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1treatments significantly increased the sucrose consumption in the sucrose preference test and decrease in immobility in the forced swimming test., the latency to eat in novelty-suppressed feeding test of ginsenoside Rg1 (60 μmol/kg) group was significantly reduced, and percentage of open arm entries and time in elevated plus maze test of ginsenoside Rg1 (30 and 60 μmol/kg) groups was significantly increased. The content of serum corticosterone in ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb1 dose groups was significantly decreased. The levels of serum IL-1β and IL-6 in ginsenoside Rg1 (30 μmol/kg) dose group were significantly decreased, The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum of ginsenoside Rb1 (30 μmol/kg) group were significantly decreased. And the contents of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in hippocampus of ginsenoside Rg1 and Rb high dose group were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Both ginsenosides can regulate the HPA axis and inhibit neuroinflammation, improving depression and anxieti-like behavior in rats induced by chronic unpredictable stress. In addition, ginsenoside Rg1 has a significantly better anti-anxiety effect than Rb1.

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    • Gualou Xiebai Baijiu Decoction regulating intestinal microflora and its metabolites to improve atherosclerosis in mice

      chenzhifan, chenyulin, niesha, sunwenhao, lichang, mazishan, hukai, heyingying, liuying, tangyaoping

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the mechanism of Gualou Xiebai Baijiu Decoction in improving atherosclerosis (AS) in mice by regulating gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolites. Methous Thirty two male Apoe-/- mice were randomly divided into blank group, model group, atorvastatin(Ato) group and Gualou Xiebai Baijiu Decoction (GXB) group, with 8 mice in each group. Except for the Blank group, three groups of mice were established with AS models and administered by gavage according to their respective groups. Oil red O staining was used to detect the area of aortic plaques. HE staining was used to observe pathological changes in aortic tissue. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology to analyze mouse GM. Detection of mouse GM metabolites trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), short chain fatty acids (SCFA), and serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and NO. Results Compared with the Blank group, both the Model group and Ato group showed an increase in AS plaque area (P<0.05); The serum levels of TG, TC, and LDL-C in the Model group increased (P<0.001), while the levels of HDL-C and NO decreased (P<0.01, P<0.001). Compared with the Model group, the Ato group and GXB group showed a decrease in plaque area (P<0.05); The levels of serum TG, TC, and LDL-C decreased (P<0.001) and the levels of NO were increased (P<0.01) in the Ato and GXB groups; The HDL-C level in the GXB group was increased (P<0.05). Compared with the Ato group, the plaque area in the GXB group was decreased (P<0.05) and the NO level increased (P<0.01).There are 6345 characteristic sequences obtained from 16srRNA. α Diversity analysis suggests that GXB can reduce the richness of GM in AS mice (P<0.001) and improve its uniformity (P<0.05). β Diversity analysis suggests that the microbial community structure of the GXB group is similar to that of the Blank group. There are differences in the abundance of microbial communities among different groups at the phylum and genus levels. At the phylum level, the abundance of Proteobacteria was increased (P<0.01) in mouse AS modeling, while GXB intervention reduced its abundance (P<0.01) and increased the abundance of Verrucomimicrobiota (P<0.05).. At the genus level, GXB intervention can effectively increase the abundance level of Akkermansia (P<0.05). Compared with the Model group, the SCFA level in the GXB group significantly increased (P<0.01), while the TMAO level significantly decreased (P<0.01). Conclusions Gualou Xiebai Baijiu Decoction can regulate intestinal flora and intestinal flora metabolites SCFA, TMAO to improve AS.Akkermansia may be a key bacterial genus for GXB to improve AS through gut microbiota.

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    • Chronic myocardial ischaemia mouse model of coronary artery disease and evaluation methods

      wang zhao bo, panyi, linqian, zhongjuying

      Abstract:

      Objective To establish a stable mouse model of chronic myocardial ischemia, and to preliminarily elaborate the electrophysiological principle of T-wave flattening under ischemic state. Methods 1. C57BL/6 J mice were used as control group with normal diet for 3 months. APOE-/- mice were randomly divided into a model group and a Lipid-lowering Drug (LLD) group, and were fed a high-fat diet for 3 months; 2. Plaque condition was assessed by Hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE) and oil red staining; 3. Electrocardiograms of the mice before and after modelling; and 4. Recordings of the ventricular myocytes' action potentials. Results 1. Cholesterol (CHO) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) were significantly elevated in the model group, and lipid plaques appeared in the aorta of the model mice after modelling, while the lesions in the LLD group were significantly reduced, and no plaques were found in the control group; 2. There was no significant change in the T/QRS wave (T/QRS) in the ECG after modelling in the control group, whereas a significant reduction in T/QRS was observed in the model and LLD groups. 3. There was a significant positive correlation between the degree of T/QRS depression and the levels of lipids and the degree of atherosclerosis (AS) pathology. 4. The inner layer of the cardiomyocyte action potential repetitions more slowly than the outer layer of cardiomyocytes, whereas the repetitive rate was accelerated by the ischemic inner layer of cardiomyocytes. cardiomyocytes accelerated the repolarisation rate. Conclusions APOE-/- mice can be used as a mouse model of chronic myocardial ischemia, and the increased repolarisation rate of the inner myocardium in ischemia may be the main reason for the depression of the electrocardiographic "T wave" in ischemia.

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    • Inhibition of gallic acid on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human THP1 macrophages

      DIAO Jiawen, XU Hui, MA Xinyue, QUAN Jishu

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the inhibitory effect of gallic acid (GA) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in human THP1 macrophages. Methods THP1 monocytes were differentiated into macrophages with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and then the macrophage inflammation model was established with LPS induction,and GA was given in different concentrations. The safe concentrations of LPS and GA on THP1 cells were screened by CCK-8 method,and the normal group, model group (100 μg/L LPS ) and GA group(100 μg/L LPS + different concentrations of GA)were set up. ELISA was used to detect the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β(IL-1β) in the cell culture fluid of each group. Microplate method was used to detect LDH activity and NO content in cell cultures of each group, and fluorescence staining was used to detect ROS levels, cell damage and changes in mitochondrial transmembrane potential in each group.Western blotting assay was performed to detect the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), HMGB1,c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (P38), nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB), NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), Caspase-1,IL-1β、Gasdermin D(GSDMD). Results Compared with the normal group, the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and NO in cell cultures was increased in the model group (P<0.05), and the secretion of COX-2, HMGB1, p-ERK, p-JNK, and p-P38 and p-NF-κB, NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1? protein expression was elevated (P<0.05), the expression level of GSDMD protein activation fragment was reduced (P<0.05), ROS generation and cellular damage were significantly increased, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was significantly lower than that of the normal group, and the activity of LDH was elevated (P<0.05); in comparison with the model group, the cell culture fluid of the GA group IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and NO secretion were decreased (P<0.05), COX-2, HMGB1, p-ERK, p-JNK and p-P38 and p-NF-κB, NLRP3, Caspase-1, IL-1β protein expression was decreased (P<0.05), GSDMD protein activation fragment expression level was increased (P<0.05), ROS generation and cellular damage were decreased, mitochondrial transmembrane potential was gradually increased, and LDH activity was decreased (P<0.05).Conclusion GAhas an inhibitory effect on LPS-induced inflammatory response in THP1 macrophages, and its anti-inflammatory mechanism may involve MAPK and NF-κB signalingpathways.

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    • Sanguisorbae Radix alleviates damage in Ulcerative Colitis Mice Based on PPARG and SCL7A11/GPX4

      Xiaoxi Yin, Zixuan Chen, Yi Yuan, Jingnan Ma, Jing Wang, Tianyi Lv, Miaomiao Tong, Li Li

      Abstract:

      Objective: To investigate the mechanism of Sanguisorbae Radix (SR) in the treatment of Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Methods: The study analyzed GSE92415 from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database using differentially expressed genes analysis, weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) and FerrDb. Core genes were identified through protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and correlation analysis. The efficacy of SR in UC was evaluated in a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colonic inflammatory mouse model by analyzing DAI, histopathology and colon length. ELISA was used to examine levels of inflammatory cytokines and lipid peroxidation. The expression levels of ZO-1 tight junction protein, PPARG, SLC7A11 and GPX4 protein were examined through Western blotting or immunofluorescence labeling. Results:S Nine differentially expressed genes associated with ferroptosis were screened and PPARG was identified as a key gene. The experimental animal results showed that SR significantly prevented colon shortening and ameliorated histological injuries of colons in DSS-treated mice. SR inhibited cytokine levels of IL-6 and TNF-α, improved the reduction of ZO-1 and levels of MDA and GSH in colon tissues of DSS mice. Meanwhile, it enhanced the activation of PPARG, SLC7A11 and GPX4, which reversed the therapeutic effect of DSS in mice with colitis. Conclusion: Iron death is closely related to UC. SR can inhibit iron death by regulating the PPARG and SCL7A11/GPX4 expression, thereby improving colon epithelial injury and dysfunction in UC mice. This provides ideas and direction for UC treatment strategies.

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    • Lipidomics driven biomarker discovery in chronic lung disease

      Zhang Ang, Liu Xinguang, Du Yan, Xie Yang

      Abstract:

      Chronic lung diseases (CLD) include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, etc. Studies have shown that CLD is closely related to the disorder of lipid metabolism. Therefore, lipids, as biomarkers of CLD, may be of great value in the diagnosis, prevention and monitoring of disease treatment.This review mainly discusses four aspects of lipidomics, selection of clinical samples for lipidomics, discovery of biomarkers for CLD, and differentiation of TCM syndromes for CLD.

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    • Establishment of WHBE rabbit knee osteoarthritis model and intervention study of platelet-rich fibrin releasates

      Huang Jun-jie, Chen Min-li, Zhu Ke-yan, Jiang Jing-ao, Zhang Jing-hui, Jiang Chao, Pan Yong-ming

      Abstract:

      Objective WHBE rabbit KOA model was established by excision of medial collateral and partial patellar ligaments and intervention with platelet-rich fibrin release solution (PRFr). To investigate the mechanism of cartilage injury and inflammation in WHBE rabbit KOA model and the effect of PRFr intervention on KOA process. Methods Twenty-four WHBE rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC) group (n=6), KOA group (n=12) and PRFr group (n=6). The KOA group and PRFr group injected 0.5 mL of saline and PRFr into both joint cavities on the 7th and 14th postoperative days, respectively. At 4 and 8 weeks of modeling, knee joint grade score, X-ray imaging observation and gross score were performed. Serum levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-13 were detected by ELISA. Pathological sections were made after decalcification, and then HE staining, toluidine blue staining, safranin o-fast green staining and immunohistochemical expression of TGF-β, BMP3 and NF-κB were detected. Results Lequesne MG behavioral score, Mankin's score and Pelletier score of WHBE rabbits after the operation were significantly increased vs NC group (P<0.01); Pathological observation shows surface defects of cartilage and partial loss of chondrocytes; These results above indicated that the KOA model was established successfully. In KOA rabbits, knee joint swelling, joint pain stimulation and movement limitation were obvious, and X-ray showed high-density soft tissue shadow, indicating more joint effusion, and rough articular surface in general. After PRFr treatment, the levels of serum inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-13) in KOA model rabbits were significantly reversed (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the surface of cartilage became smooth, and most of the chondrocytes were neatly distributed. At the same time, the expression levels of TGF-β, BMP3 and NF-κB induced by KOA were significantly decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion This study successfully established the KOA model of WHBE rabbits, and PRFr can improve the cartilage injury and inflammation of WHBE rabbits KOA model through TGF-β/BMP and NF-κB pathways.

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    • Potential risks of biosafety and prevention strategies in medical and pharmaceutical research laboratories

      Chen Mo, Tao Jiayi, Wang Hongxu, Zhang Qingjian

      Abstract:

      Medical and pharmaceutical research laboratory usually involves wide range of study aspects. The materials used in the laboratory are various, including animals, microorganisms and nano-particles and other kinds. Meanwhile, with the production of more and more waste, more biosafety risks would be created. Here, we outlined the potential safety risks related with gene amplification, gene recombination, pathogenic microorganism research, nanotechnology, animal experiments, genetically altered animals, and experimental waste, etc. It also proposed preventive measures for laboratory biosafety risks, which mainly associate with developing strict legal frameworks, bettering hardware infrastructure, strengthening safety awareness, and enhancing education and training programs.

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    • Research progress on related complications after snake bite

      LI Yumei, YANG Yue, YI Jun, YAN Zhangren, WANG Wanchun, DONG Degang

      Abstract:

      Snake bite is a common clinical emergency, which has the characteristics of acute onset, rapid changes in condition, high disability and mortality rates. In addition to the common systemic and local tissue damage, snake envenomation can also cause significant complications, including immediate and delayed effects. These complications are also the main causes of disability and even death caused by snake bite, which seriously affect the long-term prognosis and quality of patients’ life. This paper summarizes the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of snakebite complications from the aspects of blood system, nervous system, motor system, endocrine system, reproductive system and other aspects, in order to provide references for effective and precise treatment of snake bite in clinical practice.

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    • Research progress of ferroptosis in the mechanism of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury

      jianghuan, BAI Wenya, SHAO Jianlin

      Abstract:

      Ferroptosis is a newly cell death mode discovered in recent years, involving in a variety of pathophysiological processes, such as ischemia reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative diseases and tumors, etc. At present, there is a lack of effective methods to prevent and treat ischemic stroke worldwide, and ferroptosis which is involved in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. 50 articles were included in this paper after searching the related literature, which published in databases such as PebMed, Wanfang, CNKI and VIP in recent years. Discussing theIorn metabolism and the concept, mechanism and regulation of ferroptosis, the role of ferroptosis in the mechanism of cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, and the methods of inhibiting ferroptosis, this paper attempts to provide reference for finding a new potential treatment for ischemic stroke from the direction of inhibiting ferroptosis.

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    • Research progress on MHC function and transgenic mouse models

      CAO Xiangwen, LI Min, YIN Qi, HAN Xueliang, WANG Yuan, ZHAO Guangyu

      Abstract:

      The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is closely related to immune regulation, and not only has genetic polymorphisms, but also has species differences in MHC restriction. The construction of humanized MHC transgenic mouse models is an important strategy to break through the differences of MHC species and simulate the characteristics of human immune response. MHC transgenic mice are mainly divided into MHC I or MHC II. single transgenic mouse models and MHC I and MHC II double transgenic mouse models. At present, the strategy of knocking out H-2Kb and H-2Db or knocking out murine β2m is adopted to eliminate the competitive inhibition of HLA I molecules by endogenous H-2 class I molecules, and the construction of HLA II transgenic mouse model is to knock out the β strand of murine origin and transfer it to HLA II. class genes.With the optimization of construction strategies, MHC transgenic mouse models have been applied to epitope vaccine development, tumor treatment, and disease genetic association studies, becoming a powerful tool for preclinical trials. In this paper, we summarize the relevant data of MHC transgenic mouse models, and summarize the construction strategies of MHC transgenic mouse models and their application progress in vaccine development and disease treatment.

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    • Advances in the study of glucose metabolic reprogramming in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease

      Xu Qian, Yang Qiong, Tan Zihu

      Abstract:

      Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread dementia. Despite extensive research on the pathogenesis of AD over the past fifty years, the underlying mechanisms responsible for AD-related cellular damage and cognitive impairment remain elusive. Currently, multiple studies have confirmed alterations in glucose metabolism patterns within nerve cells in individuals with AD. This metabolic transition plays a crucial role in cell survival and disease progression, even occurring decades before pathological changes and cognitive dysfunction manifest. This article provides an overview of potential mechanisms through which glucose metabolism reprogramming contributes to AD development in various types of nerve cells and brain regions, as well as their interplay, aiming to establish a foundation for further investigation into AD while offering insights and ideas for the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches.

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    • Analysis of animal model of psoriatic arthritis based on the characteristics of Chinese medicine and Western medicine

      Shi Yajin, LI Hanbing, LI Genlin, WU Suhui

      Abstract:

      Purpose: In recent years, with the incidence of psoriatic arthritis gradually increasing and incurable in China, it has become a major problem in the medical career. Therefore, In this study, we actively explored the pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis based on the characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine clinical evidence, summarized the currently available animal models and analyzed and evaluated them. Methods: Literature detected in line with this topic was collated and summarized, and the existing models were given an agreement score through the study of the etiology and pathogenesis of psoriatic arthritis in Chinese and Western medicine, the diagnostic criteria of Chinese and Western medicine, and the analysis of the characteristics of the animal models and their degree of agreement with the clinic. Results: This thesis found that the human leukocyte antigen transgenic mouse model, the multiple hybridization transgenic mouse model, and the mannan-induced mouse model had the highest fit scores. Conclusion: Since psoriatic arthritis is mostly seen in Europe, the preparation methods of animal models are mostly imported from abroad, and there are very few animal models prepared with the characteristics of Chinese medicine, therefore, the model agreement scores of western diagnosis are higher than those of Chinese medicine diagnosis as a whole. It is hoped that in the future, we can combine the unique diagnosis and treatment methods of Chinese medicine to further improve the types of animal models of psoriatic arthritis, so as to provide a basis for the construction of more ideal animal models for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis by combining traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine.

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    • Research progress of mitochondrial quality control in respiratory diseases

      xujingjing

      Abstract:

      Respiratory diseases (lung inflammation, pulmonary fibrosis) are a serious threat to human health. As organelles unique to eukaryotic cells, mitochondria not only have important functions in energy production, biosynthesis and maintenance of intracellular homeostasis, but also act as diverse signaling organelles involved in inflammation, proliferation, differentiation, cell repair and other processes. The mitochondrial quality control system includes mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitochondrial autophagy. It has been found that certain pathological mechanisms of respiratory diseases such as oxidative stress and inflammation are closely related to dysregulation of mitochondrial quality control. Therefore, this paper summarizes the research progress of mitochondrial quality control dysregulation in respiratory diseases (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary fibrosis, acute lung injury, asthma and bacterial pneumonia), in order to seek new ideas for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases from the perspective of mitochondria.

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    • Neuro-pathological study of the intrathalamic neurovirulence test of poliomyelitis vaccine in rhesus macaques

      YU Pin, XU Yan-feng, HAN Yun-lin, ZHAO Wen-jie, QIN Chuan

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the effect and pathological mechanisms of the neuro-immune response of viral encephalomyelitis caused by the virulence reversion of the intrathalamic neurovirulence test of poliomyelitis vaccine in rhesus macaques. Methods The stock solution (not less than 7000 lgCCID50?L-1) of the inactivated polio vaccine (Vero cells) of type I, type II and type III Sabin strains and 10-1 dilution of each type of polio vaccine were carried out using intrathalamic neurovirulence test. We observed the pathological changes of polio. Via immunohistochemical method, the distribution of receptor CD155 and CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes and CD68+ microglia were detected. Results Lesions were observed on the virulence reverted polio case. Inflammatory cells infiltrating, neuronal degeneration and necrosis, satellite phenomenon, perivascular cuffing and glial cell proliferation were observed in the spinal cord. The inflammatory cells were mainly CD4+ T lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes, and CD68+ microglia in perivascular cuffing and proliferative glial nodules. There is no significant difference on distribution of poliovirus receptor CD155 in neurons and glial cells of monkeys with and without polio, while no expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells. Conclusion Polio caused by virulence reversion of the intrathalamic neurovirulence test is viral encephalomyelitis.

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    • Effects and mechanism of Five-elements music on the social behavior of offspring from Stress-Injured pregnant rats

      WU Yongye, YANG Liping, ZHAO Jiajia, SONG Qi, HOU Junlin, WANG Yaohui, LI Xiaolin

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the effects and mechanism of Five-element music on the social behavior of Pregnant Children with Allergic Stress during Pregnancy, in order to provide a basis for the early prevention and treatment of clinical fetogenic affective disorders. Methods Forty-five pregnant mice were randomly divided into three groups: a blank group, a model group, and a Five Element Music group. In the model and Five Element Music groups, the model was induced using the bystander electric shock method. Additionally, the Five Element Music group was exposed to Palace Tune Five Element Music daily from 17:00 to 19:00 during pregnancy. On the 19th day of pregnancy, ELISA was employed to assess the levels of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol (CORT) in the serum of pregnant mice in each group for modeling evaluation. The offspring were subsequently grouped with their mother mice and underwent an 8-week-old three-box social experiment to observe social behavior. We utilized the immunofluorescence double-labeling method to detect glutamatergic neuron activity in the mPFC region of the offspring mice. Furthermore, high-performance liquid chromatography was employed to measure the total glutamate (Glu) content in the mPFC region of the offspring mice, while Gorky staining was used to observe changes in dendritic spines of mPFC neurons in the offspring mice.Results Compared to the blank group, the model group exhibited a significant increase in the levels of ACTH and CORT in the serum of pregnant mice, alongside a significant decrease in the social interaction time and social novelty preference index of the offspring mice. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the activity of glutamate neurons, glutamate content, and neuronal dendritic spines.In contrast, when compared to the model group, the Wuxing Music group demonstrated a reduction in the levels of ACTH and CORT in the serum of pregnant mice, as well as improvements in the social behavior, glutamate neuron activity, glutamate content, and the condition of neuronal dendritic spines in the offspring. Conclusions The intervention of Five-element music effectively ameliorates offspring"s social behavior disorder resulting from prenatal fear stress, with its mechanism potentially linked to enhancing glutamate neuron activity in the mPFC region.

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    • Immune cell composition analysis of CAST/EiJ mice

      LIUQI, HOU Yongzhi, LI Na, ZHANG Jingjing, LU Jiahan, CONG Zhe, ZHU Lin, XUE Jing

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the possible causes of susceptibility to multiple pathogens in CAST/EiJ mice, immune cell phenotypes in the peripheral blood and spleen of CAST/EiJ mice were analyzed to clarify the immune cell composition of CAST/EiJ mice. Methods Classical dendritic cells (cDCs), natural killer (NK) cells, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes and their subsets in peripheral blood and spleen of CAST/EiJ mice and C57BL/6J mice were detected by flow cytometry using the cell surface markers CD3, CD4, CD8, CD11b, CD11c, CD19, CD27, CD49b and TCRβ. Results There was no significant difference in the proportion of cDCs between CAST/EiJ and C57BL/6J mice, but the cDC1 cell subset was low. The proportion of NK cells (mainly mature NK cell subsets) and T lymphocytes (mainly CD8+ T cells) were both lower in CAST/EiJ mice than in C57BL/6J mice, while the proportion of B cells in CAST/EiJ mice were higher than those in C57BL/6J mice. Conclusion The proportion of NK and T lymphocytes in CAST/EiJ mice was lower than those in C57BL/6J mice.

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    • Evaluation of an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome based on data mining

      Li Ya-qing, Wang Can, miaomingsan

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the application of the animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome, and to provide reference for its animal experimental methods and model improvement. Methods Using "chronic fatigue syndrome, animal model" and "chronic fatigue syndrom, animal model" as search terms, we searched in China Knowledge, Wanfang and PubMed databases. Literature on animal models of chronic fatigue syndrome was compiled from July 2000 to July 2023, and experimental animals, modeling methods, positive drugs, and detection indexes were sorted out, and a database was established for statistics and analysis. Results A total of 155 articles were included; the most experimental animals were male SD rats of SPF grade and 6-8 weeks of age, with weights of 180-220g; the most used mice were male KM mice of 18-22g and 6-8 weeks of age; the most used positive drug was ginseng saponin tablets; the most used modeling method was the method of "forced cold water swimming + chronic restraint"; the most used modeling method was the method of "forced cold water swimming + chronic restraint"; the most used modeling method was the method of "forced cold water swimming + chronic restraint". +The most widely used modeling method is the "forced cold water swimming" method, and the modeling cycle is mostly concentrated in 14 days, and most of them adopt the method of intervention while modeling; the testing indexes are mainly behavioral, which mainly include the exhaustion swimming experiment, the open field experiment, the rat-tail suspension experiment, the Morris water maze experiment, and the observation of the general state of the animals, and the second is the serum biochemical indexes, and the most frequently detected indexes are serum MDA, SOD, TNF-alpha, IOD, and IBP, TNF-α, IL-1β, CORT, IL-2, IFN-γ, ACTH, GSH-Px, IgG, IgA, IL-6, etc. The rest of the indicators were selected according to the research purpose, including the indexes of spleen, thymus, etc., the morphological indicators detected by HE staining and ultrastructural electron microscopy, the immunohistochemistry-related indicators, the CRH and Smilax detected by fluorescence PCR, the CRH, the Smilax, the Smilax, and the Smilax. The mRNA expression indexes of CRH, Smad4, BDNF, CREB, IFN-γ, NRF-1, TFAM, Tlr4, etc., and the protein expression indexes of BDNF, CREB, ERK, Bmal1, Clock, NGF, PGC-1α, SIRT1, Smad4, Caspsae-3, etc., were determined by Western blot method. and other related protein expression indicators. Conclusion At present, the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome is still unclear, and the animal model is mainly based on the stress modeling method of "forced cold water swimming + chronic restraint", which simulates the physical and mental fatigue state of human beings; there is no uniform regulation on the criteria for the formation of animal models, and the evaluation of the model is based on the application of a variety of behavioral experiments individually or in combination, and the objective evaluation indexes are mostly used to argue the etiology of the disease and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions. The objective evaluation indexes are mostly used to prove the conjecture of etiology and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions; the results of the application of various test indexes show that chronic fatigue syndrome may be related to inflammatory response, neurological dysfunction, and mitochondrial dysfunction, and there may be abnormalities in the pathogenesis of immune function, energy metabolism, cell proliferation, and cell death, which is expected to provide reference for the application of the model, and to provide ideas for the model"s refinement. The excavated content is expected to provide reference for the application of the model and provide ideas for the improvement of the model.

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    • Application and prospect in experimental animal model of chronic stress

      YUE Xiaoqi, Li Yuting, JIANG Miao, ZHAO Zigang, NIU Chunyu

      Abstract:

      The effect and mechanism of chronic stress on psychosomatic diseases is a hot topic in the field of stress research. The establishment of animal models to simulate human chronic stress state is of great significance in the principle of stress response, the pathogenesis of related diseases, clinical treatment and drug development. In this paper, the commonly used animal models of chronic stress at home and abroad were reviewed, the classification of stressors, animal selection, model construction, pathological manifestations and evaluation indexes were summarized, and the advantages and disadvantages and application progress of various models were discussed, hoping to provide references for the study of model selection of chronic stress response.

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    • Technological advances in the study of post-stroke neural loop

      Chenyanxi, Xuzhidong, Liutingting, Maliansu, Sunfangling, Wangwen

      Abstract:

      Neural loops are formed by interconnections between neurons through synaptic structures, Which are the basic units of information transmission and processing in the brain and play an important role in the regulation of neural functions. After Stroke, the neural connections between the infarcted area and the peri-infarct region and the remote area are damaged, resulting in patients at risk for neurological dysfunction or even disability. However, with advances in detection technology, more and more studies have demonstrated that patients with stroke can produce some functional recovery during the chronic phase, possibly related to the re-establishment of synaptic connections and neural circuits. Therefore, the development of specific technology to identify and manipulate neuronal activity patterns, as well as the use of high temporal and spatial resolution imaging strategies to decipher these neurological processes allows us to understand the whole-brain network dynamics of stroke recovery and the mechanisms by which neural loop reestablishment occurs. Furthermore, we could neurobiologically comprehend the closed-loop relationships that underlie the development of stroke pathology to behavioral outcomes. Current technology for studying neural circuits focus on optogenetics, chemical genetics, in vivo calcium imaging, and functional magnetic resonance imaging technology. This article will introduce the working principles of these four major technologies, focus on summarizing the results of their respective applications in resolving neural remodeling after stroke, and briefly analyze the application scenarios, advantages and disadvantages, and future development trends of each technique. This paper will help clinical and basic researchers to to utilize these technologies in discovering new therapeutic strategies as well as evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies.

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    • Analysis of the Role of Brain Plasticity in Improving Depression by Exercise

      Chen Xianghe, LU Pengcheng, SHEN Ziming, LIU Chi, ZENG Xinyu, YIN Rongbin

      Abstract:

      The research on the mechanism of depression is currently a focus in the field of neuroscience, degeneration of brain plasticity (decrease in volume, structural degradation, and functional disorder of the hippocampus, PFC, CG, etc.) leads to depression. Exercise is an important means of improving depression. Current research has confirmed the important mechanism of improving the volume, structure, and function of the hippocampus, PFC, CG, etc. in this process, but related research results only focus solely on changes in a certain brain volume or connectivity function, lacking a comprehensive understanding Systematic analysis of the mechanism of improving brain plasticity in exercise antidepressant effects. Therefore, this study aims to explore the role of brain plasticity in the occurrence of depression and the improvement of depression through exercise. This helps to comprehensively understand the role of brain plasticity in the occurrence of depression, and will also provide new ideas for exercise intervention in depression.

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    • Construction and application of patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoid model

      LI Peng, HUANG Minli, TAN Dengxu, ZHANG Caiqin, ZHANG Yongbin, SHI Changhong

      Abstract:

      Objective To construct a patient-derived pancreatic tumor organoid (PDO) and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods Collect fresh surgical specimens from pancreatic cancer patients for PDO culture; Compared the pathological and genetic characteristics of the PDO model with the primary tumors; Using the PDO model to evaluate the efficacy of clinical chemotherapy drugs and evaluate the effectiveness of the model. Results A PDO model of pancreatic cancer was successfully established. Histomorphological analysis displayed that the PDO model basically maintained the pathological characteristics of the primary tumor. Whole-exon sequencing showed that both organoids and original tumor tissue remained consistent in the gene mutation type and characteristics. Drug screening tests have exhibited that the PDO model had good sensitivity to gemcitabine and irinotecan. Conclusion A case of pancreatic cancer PDO was successfully constructed, which can reflect the histological and genetic characteristics of the original tumor, and can be used for drug sensitivity experiments in vitro, which proves the effectiveness of PDO model and is expected to imply precision medicine.

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    • Advances in the study of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms of astrocytes

      xu liuqing, zhaopeiyuan, liuxihong, duxiaodan, fangmengyang, yuchenyang, houjunlin

      Abstract:

      Astrocytes (AS) are the most abundant glial cells in the central nervous system and are involved in many physiology and pathology processes in the nervous system. Alterations in their phenotype are particularly important for the health of the CNS. Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modification, non-coding RNA regulation and chromatin remodeling, are closely linked to alterations in AS proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and other phenotypic features, but how these mechanisms function still needs to be explored and summarized. By reviewing the recent advances in the role of epigenetic mechanisms in AS under different physiological and pathological states, aim to provide new ideas for the understanding and treatment of related diseases.

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    • Experimental study of ursolic acid to ameliorate pancreatic β-cell injury in type 1 diabetic rats based on the TLR4/NF-κB pathway and Th17/Treg cell balance

      songyu, zhangxiaoli, chenhuanhuan, tangcong

      Abstract:

      [abstracts] Objective To investigate the effects of ursolic acid (UA) on TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and Th17/Treg cells in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) rats. Mmthods The T1DM rat model was prepared by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin, and randomly divided into blank (Control group) group, model group (Model group), metformin group (MET group) and UA group. General conditions such as body weight and blood glucose were recorded, and peripheral blood and pancreatic tissues were collected after six weeks of gavage to assess insulin intervention. Immunohistochemistry was used to observe the pathological changes in pancreatic tissues; horseshoe crab reagent was used to detect the changes in serum LPS content; qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of pancreatic TLR4, MyD88, IκBα, and NF-κB p65 mRNAs, as well as the expression of the transcription factors RORγt and Foxp3 mRNAs; and Western blot was used to detect the expression of pancreatic TLR4, MyD88, IκBα , NF-κB p65 protein expression, and transcription factors RORγt, Foxp3 protein expression; flow cytometry to detect changes in the ratio of peripheral blood Th17, Treg cells; ELISA to detect changes in serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β levels. Results After STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated by gavage for 6 weeks, compared with the Model group, fasting blood glucose (FBG) decreased significantly in both the MET and UA groups, and body weights increased; inflammatory infiltration of pancreatic β-cells was reduced; and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, IκBα, NF-κB p65, RORγt mRNA and protein expression was significantly decreased; LPS content was significantly decreased; IκBα, Foxp3 mRNA and protein expression was significantly increased; Th17/Treg ratio was significantly decreased; and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β content was significantly decreased. Conclusion UA can improve the symptoms of rats by reducing LPS shift, inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB pathway, down-regulating RORγt and up-regulating Foxp3 expression to correct the imbalance of Th17/Treg cell ratio in T1DM rats.

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    • Effects of Shaoyao Gancao granule on hair growth, behavior and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in mice with alopecia areata

      QU Baoquan, LYU Shuying, LIN Wenjun, YANG Dingquan

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the effects of Shaoyao Gancao granule on hair growth, behavior and hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in mice with alopecia areata (AA). Methods Forty-two C3H/HeJ mice were randomly divided into control, model, Shaoyao Gancao granule, corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) antagonist, and compound glycyrrhizin tablet (CGT) group. Photography, dermoscopy photography, weight weighing, behavioral measurement were taken, as well as corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were assessed. Results Compared with the model group, high-dose Shaoyao Gancao granules could improve hair regeneration and weight gain (P<0.05), increase the percentage of total exercise distance and central area exercise distance in the open field experiment (P<0.05), reduce the immobility time in the forced swimming experiment and tail suspension experiment (P<0.05), reduce peripheral blood CRH, ACTH, Cortisol levels (P<0.05), and increase the expression of GR and BDNF in the hippocampus (P<0.05). Conclusions Shaoyao Gancao granule can promote hair growth and improve behavioral performance in mice with AA. The effects may be related to downregulating the levels of CRH, ACTH, and Cortisol, upregulating the expression of GR and BDNF, and inhibiting excessive activation of the HPA axis.

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    • Advances in the study of CAV1 in digestive tract tumors

      Wu Zhihang, Pan Haibang, Tang mingzheng, lixiaofeng, rong yao, cuiyan

      Abstract:

      [Abstract] Digestive tract tumour is currently one of the most common types of cancer in the world, including esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer and colorectal cancer, etc. Their prognosis is not good and the treatment still needs further improvement. Caveolin-1(CAV1)has a dual regulatory effect in digestive tract tumors, which is both a tumor suppressor and a carcinogen. CAV1 plays an important role in cell proliferation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug tolerance of digestive tract tumors, the regulation of CAV1 protein and its related signaling pathways may become one of the strategies for the treatment of digestive tract tumors. Therefore, the review analyzes the relationship between CAV1 and digestive tract tumors in terms of structure, function, expression regulation, regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT)and drug resistance in digestive tract tumors in order to provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical digestive tract tumors.

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    • Advances of Programmed Cell Death in Post-stroke Cognitive Impairment

      sunkexin, xiaoyuqian, wanjun, chenshuying, chenlimin, wangyan, baiyanjie

      Abstract:

      Post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI) is one of the common complications after stroke, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of stroke patients. However, the pathogenesis has not been fully explained. More and more evidence shows that the mechanism of programmed cell death (PCD) is related to PSCI, including apoptosis, necrotic apoptosis, pyroptosis, generalized apoptosis, PARP-1 dependent cell death and iron death. Therefore, it is crucial to have a clear understanding of various mechanisms of PCD and their relationship with PSCI, and to elucidate the role of PCD in the pathogenesis of diseases. The article reviews six PCD pathways related to PSCI, summarizes their mechanisms of action in PSCI, and elucidates the possible crosstalk between different pathways, in order to provide data basis for clinical targeting of regulatory factors in the PCD pathway for the treatment of PSCI.

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    • Experimental study on the health hazards of brake pad particles and their main component antimony sulfide respiratory exposure in mice

      LI Yanhong, XIU Jinghui, ZHOU Li, GUO Jianguo

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the potential harmful effects of brake source particles. Methods Grind the brake pad particles or antimony sulfide particles. Subsequently, the mice were exposed through tracheal perfusion for 1 month to observe pathological changes in in the lungs, heart, and liver, and flow cytometry was used to analyze the changes in peripheral blood macrophages and regulatory T cells (Treg). Results After exposure, there was deposition of foreign substances in the alveolar wall of mice, with obvious infiltration of inflammatory cells around blood vessels, which worsened with increasing exposure concentration. In addition, pathological changes such as vascular inflammation and microthrombosis in the heart, and hepatocyte swelling in the liver were observed. Treg cells in peripheral blood decreased and macrophages increased in the antimony sulfide group and low-dose brake pad particles group, while the proportion of M2-type macrophages decreased. Conclusions Exposure to brake pad particles and their component antimony sulfide particles has varying degrees of toxic effects on the lung, heart, and liver of mice, and has a impact on the immune system, indicating the potential health hazards of brake-derived air pollution.

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    • Effect of Sanjie Quban Recipe on the Keloid Model of BALB/C Nude Mice and Influence on Transforming Growth Factor-β1

      Huang ChuHan, Yang DingQuan, Zhong ShiYi, Wu RuiYing, Yang ZhiShan, Fang HuiJuan, Liu QingWu

      Abstract:

      Objective This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the Sanjie Quban Recipe on a keloid nude mice model and its impact on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Methods Keloid tissue after surgical resection was transplanted into the subcutaneous back of healthy SPF BALB/C female nude mice aged 6-8 weeks, and the keloid nude mice model was established. The mice were randomly divided into 3 groups, 5 in each group. They were respectively treated with Sanjie Quban Recipe, Asiaticoside tablet and sterile pure water. After 28 days of continuous gavage, keloid tissue was exfoliated and weighed, HE staining, Masson staining, and immunohistochemical staining (TGF-β1). The difference of keloid weight between the three groups before and after treatment was compared, and the difference of collagen fiber, fibroblast number and TGF-β1 expression between the three groups after treatment was also compared. Results The weight difference of keloid in the Asiaticoside tablet group was greater than that in the control group, and the weight difference before and after keloid treatment was the largest in the Sanjie Quban Fang group compared with the Asiaticoside tablet group and the control group (P < 0.01). Compared with the control group, the collagen fibers in Sanjie Quban Fang group were loose and the number decreased. The number of fibroblasts decreased. The expression of TGF-β1 in Sanjie Quban Formula group was decreased compared with control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Sanjie Quban Recipe has certain therapeutic effect on keloid, the mechanism may be through reducing the expression of TGF-β1 in keloid tissue, thereby reducing the proliferation of fibroblasts and the synthesis of extracellular matrix. This study provides experimental basis and theoretical basis for the clinical treatment of keloid with Chinese medicine.

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    • MiR-379-5p inhibits proliferation, invasion and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells

      Song Yanmei, Sun Ningxin, Liu Chen, Song Yifen, Li Hongli, Yin Chonggao

      Abstract:

      By investigating the effects of miR-379-5p on the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells, we provide new therapeutic targets for clinical inhibition of breast cancer proliferation, invasion and metastasis. Methods After plasmid transfection, 4T1 cells were utilized to detect the expression of miR-379-5p using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR); 5-ethynyl-2' doxyuridine (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, EdU) cell proliferation assay and Transwell assay to detect changes in proliferation and invasion ability of 4T1 cells in each group; Migration ability of 4T1 cells after overexpression and knockdown of miR-379-5p was examined by scratch healing assay; BABL/c mice were used to establish the transplanted tumor model of breast cancer mice, and the tumor growth in vivo after miR-379-5p overexpression was observed.The transplanted tumor model of breast cancer was established in BABL/c mice, and the effects of overexpression of miR-379-5p on tumor growth and the number and size of lung metastases were observed . Results EdU results showed that knockdown of miR-379-5p enhanced the proliferation ability of cells compared with the control group, and miR-379-5p overexpression reduced the capacity of breast cancer cells to proliferate (p<0.05). Transwell and wound healing assays showed that knockdown of miR-379-5p enhanced the invasion and migration ability of breast cancer cells, and overexpression of miR-379-5p significantly inhibited the invasive and migratory ability of cells (p<0.01). In vivo tumorigenesis experiment of BABL/c mice showed that overexpression of miR-379-5p could significantly slow down the growth rate of tumor (p<0.05) and inhibit lung metastasis (p<0.01 ).In vivo experiments demonstrated that overexpression of miR-379-5p significantly slowed tumor growth (p<0.05). Conclusions miR-379-5p plays the role of tumor suppressor gene in breast cancer and inhibits the proliferation, invasion and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells.

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    • Study on pathogenesis and animal model building mechanism of ovarian dysfunction

      yangzhihui, Hu Yang, Zong Zheng, Sun Xiangming, Song Hui, Chen Yingxiang, Xu Beilei, Zhang Wenjun, Chen Luning, Li Wenlan

      Abstract:

      Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), also known as "ovarian insufficiency", has a high incidence of 1%-5%, and has been on the rise in recent years, which has seriously affected women's physical and mental health and quality of life. At present, the cause and mechanism of POI are still unclear, and the methods and applications of model construction are also confusing, and most models have some shortcomings in pertinence and stability. This also greatly limits the related research and clinical diagnosis and treatment of POI. Therefore, this paper summarizes and discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of POI and the construction of POI animal models, in order to provide more reference for the study of POI etiology and pathogenesis and the selection and construction of models.

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    • The effect of AIM in inflammatory reaction and lipid metabolism diseases

      Zhang Fan, Tian Chun yu, Wang Jingcun, La Xiaojin

      Abstract:

      Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), belongs to the group B of scavenger receptor cysteine rich-super family (SRCR-SF). AIM is a soluble protein secreted by macrophages. The expression of this protein is controlled by the liver X receptor (LXR), and it plays an important role in the immune response of the body. AIM, as a secreted protein of macrophages, plays a broad role. It not only inhibits the apoptosis of macrophages, but also participates in the regulation of macrophage polarization. In addition, relevant studies have revealed that AIM is involved in various physiological and pathological processes such as inflammation, obesity, atherosclerosis and cancer; It was used as a biological diagnosis marker for diseases such as tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis and the like; Besides, it can promote lipolysis of adipose cells by inhibiting the activity of fatty acid synthase (FAS), playing an important role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis, lipid metabolism and autoimmune diseases. In this paper, we reviewed the molecular characteristics of AIM and its effects on inflammation, lipid metabolism and other related diseases, showing multiple functional characteristics of AIM to provide the basis for relevant medical research.

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    • Autophagy and Neurological Diseases

      Liang YuYing, Huang Yong, Liu JunSheng, Ou YiLin, Li YiWen, Zhang Rui, Li Zheng, Zhang Zhi Nan

      Abstract:

      Autophagy is the main degradation and recycling pathway of abnormal aggregates and damaged organelles in cells, which maintain the normal metabolic balance and material renewal of cells. Autophagy has neuroprotective effects and can affect the functional state of the nervous system by regulating the homeostasis, development, apoptosis and other physiological processes of neurons and glial cells. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that nervous system diseases are closely related to abnormal autophagy, and inhibition or overactivation of autophagy affects the occurrence and development of depression, neurodegenerative diseases and schizophrenia. Understanding the mechanism of autophagy in nervous system diseases is of great significance for the prevention and treatment of related diseases. This review mainly reviews the current research progress of autophagy and the above diseases of nervous system, in order to provide reference for further research of these diseases.

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    • Research progress in the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol on the blood-brain barrier

      Zhang Qianyao, CHENG Hao, HUANG Yi-zhen, TENG Han-xin, ZHANG Yue, ZAHNG Rui-lin

      Abstract:

      The psychoactive properties of cannabinoids are well known, and there has been controversy about whether cannabinoids can be used for therapeutic purposes worldwide.Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol(tetrahidrocannabinol, THC), the main psychoactive substance in cannabis, its neurological mechanism has not been discovered until recently, and its neurological mechanism of action is still not fully understood. The blood-brain barrier(blood-brain barrier, BBB) is a very important barrier structure to protect the brain and is the first line of defense against foreign substances entering the brain. THC's lipophilic nature and its interaction with the endocannabinoid system make it more likely to act on the BBB. In this paper, we review the neurotoxic effects of THC, focusing on the effect and mechanism of THC on the BBB, and provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the neural mechanism of THC.

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    • Establishment and evaluation of animal model of Varicocele and Erectile dysfunction

      lujie, liqunsheng, zhoulei, lidongrun, shenzhennan, lininghua, zhufanyu, chendong, tangwenping, yangwentao

      Abstract:

      Objective By surgery inducing Varicocele(VC) in SD rats and Apomorphine Test(APO Test),we screened the rats with Erectile dysfunction(ED) after VC,and explored the method of establishing VC and ED model.Methods Randomly divide 60 rats into control group,sham group,and model group,with 20 rats in each group.Referring to the Turner method,partially ligate the left renal vein to induce left VC.And conduct three APO Tests to screen rats with ED after inducing VC,observe and record the number of erection,genital grooming,and yawning.Measuring the diameter of spermatic vein.Weighing both testises and kidneys.HE staining and observing the pathological changes in the penis and left testis.The success rate of modeling was calculated in the model group.Results 15 out of 20 rats in the model group were successfully established VC and ED model,with a success rate of 75%.After modeling,the diameter of the left spermatic vein in the model group increased significantly and were significantly higher than before-modeling,and the diameter of the right spermatic vein in the model group increased and were higher than before-modeling.The weight of the left testises in the model group significantly decreased compared to the right testises.There was no significant difference between or within groups in the comparison of bilateral kidney weight. In the model group,the number of erections,yawning and genital grooming decreased significantly,and decreased with the time of modeling.The pathological changes of the left testis and penis were significant in the model group.Conclusions Turner method can induce the increase of the diameter of spermatic vein in rats,causing testis injury and weight loss,and APO Test can screen the rats with ED after VC induction.The combination of the two methods is suitable for establishing an animal model with VC and ED status similar to human.

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    • Establishment and evaluation of hyperuricemia mouse model based on triple method

      ni jianyu, bai ningning, liu xianli, gong lihong, shou qiyang

      Abstract:

      Objective: To investigate whether a stable and reliable hyperuricemia model can be established in mice with ICR background by triple modeling method (combined with potassium oxazine, hypoxanthine and 30% yeast paste), and to evaluate the modeling method with positive drug febuxoesta. Methods: The hyperuricemia model of ICR mice was established by using potassium oxazine, hypoxanthine and 30% yeast paste diet, respectively, and the serum uric acid, creatinine, xanthine oxidase (XOD), uric acid oxidase (UOX) and other indicators were detected to evaluate the success of hyperuricemia model.Results: The serum uric acid level of ICR mice was not significantly changed by potassium oxazinate alone, which showed an increasing trend but no significant difference with that of 30% yeast paste diet and hypoxanthine combined groups, while the serum uric acid level in triple administration group was significantly increased at 7 days (P<0.01). After 14 days of dynamic monitoring, blood uric acid level of triple dose induced ICR mice peaked at 7 days. Meanwhile, the activity of XOD enzyme was increased, while that of UOX enzyme was decreased (P<0.001). In addition, triple-dose induced hyperuricemia in ICR mice was sensitive to the positive drug febuxoat, with a significant decrease in blood uric acid levels (P<0.001). Conclusion: The hyperuricemia model of ICR mice can be stably induced by triple administration at 7 days.

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    • Optimization and evaluation of an acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis model in rats

      yukui, Liangxiaoqiang, hanmian, zhangjingzhe

      Abstract:

      Objective A stable model of acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis in rats was established to detect its pathophysiological indexes and provide a stable and reliable standardized animal model for the study of acute cholangitis and cholestasis.Methods SPF grade male SD rats were selected and the model was constructed by injection of toxoid into the lower bile duct and ligation of the common bile duct, and the changes in body weight, mortality, major indexes of liver function and histopathological changes in the liver were evaluated before and after modeling.Results After modeling, the body weight of rats in the model group decreased significantly; the number of rats died was less; the main indexes of liver function and liver pathology showed obvious changes of cholestasis and liver function damage.Conclusion In this study, a rat acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis model was successfully established, which has the advantages of easy operation, low damage, low mortality and high successful modeling rate, and can provide a standardized experimental animal model for the study of the mechanism of many common diseases and drug development.

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    • Research progress of pyroptosis in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

      sunhaojie, zhujunlei, liwei, wangsuogang

      Abstract:

      Pyroptosis is a programmed cell death mediated by cysteine proteases, which is characterized by mitochondrial participation, inflammasome assembly, plasma membrane perforation, and inflammatory release. As an important mechanism mediating the body's inflammatory response, pyroptosis plays a key role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI). This article reviews the molecular mechanism of pyroptosis, the mechanism of pyroptosis in RIRI and the research progress of therapeutic drugs in recent years, aiming to provide theoretical reference for the early treatment of RIRI.

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    • Research progress of mitochondria function regulation by TRP channels and its relationship with cardivascular diseases

      zhumeiping, zhangshizhong

      Abstract:

      TRP channel is a non-selective cation channe. In recent years, a large number of studies have found that TRP channels take participate in variety of cardiovascular diseases, and the study on mitochondrial function regulation by TRP channel and its relationship with cardiovascular diseases has become a research hotspot. Up to date, the relative references are mainly focused on TRPV, TRPM and TRPC channels. This review focuses on above TRP channels in the regulation of mitochondrial function and their relationship with cardiovascular diseases.

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    • Exploration of mouse model construction of breast cancer complicated with depression induced by using method of 4T1 breast cancer cell line inoculation combined with chronic restraint stress

      liu yan, pengmengwei, Liu gaoyuan, Yang Tiezhu, Zhang wenxian, Wuyaosong, Chen Yulong

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】Objective To study the core behavioral symptoms, biological indicators and pathological changes of the mouse model construction of breast cancer complicated with depression induced by using method of 4T1 breast cancer cell line inoculation combined with chronic restraint stress (CRS). Methods BABL/c mice were randomly divided into control group, stress group, tumor group and stress combined with tumor group (S T). 4T1 cell lines were inoculated into the underarm of mice in tumor and S T groups. After tumor formation, mice in the stress and S T groups were subjected to CRS for 21 days. Body weight and food intake of each group were monitored during modeling. After the experiment, depression-like behavior of mice in each group was evaluated by sucrose preference test, open field test, elevated plus-maze test, and forced swimming test. After the mice were decapitated, the weight and volume of mouse tumor were measured. Serum tumor markers including carbohydrate antigen (CA199), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and related neurotransmitters including 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and corticosterone (CORT) were determined by using Elisa method. HE staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of hippocampus and tumor of mice. Results In mice of S T group, the body weight and food intake were significantly decreased, tumor weight and volume were significantly increased, serum tumor markers (CA199, CEA, VEGF) levels were significantly increased, pleasure and desire to explore the new environment were weakened, stress and despair behaviors were significantly increased, serum neurotransmitters 5-HT and NE levels were significantly decreased, and CORT levels were significantly increased. In addition, the cell arrangement of tumor tissue was loose, the interstitial was reduced, the pathological nuclear classification phase was increased, the arrangement and morphology of neurons in the CA3 region of hippocampus were disordered, and the nuclear vacuolation-like changes were obvious. Conclusion The mouse model of breast cancer complicated with depression induced by 4T1 breast cancer cell line inoculation combined with chronic restraint stress showed the dual typical symptoms and biological indicators of breast cancer and depression, which can provide a good model reference for the experimental study of breast cancer complicated with depression.

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    • Study on the effect of Buyang Huanwu Decoction in reducing oxidative stress and protecting cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats' blood-brain barrier

      maxian

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the mechanism of Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BYHWD) in reducing oxidative stress levels to protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CIRI) rats. Methods: Middle cerebral artery occlusion / reperfusion (MCAO/R)model was established by wire embolization method in rats, and PeriCam PSI laser speckle flow imaging system was applied to detect whether the model establishment was successful. The neurological deficits of rats were evaluated by Zea longa score; The histopathological changes in the rat brain were observed by HE staining; The degree of brain edema was detected by dry and wet weight method; The BBB permeability was detected by Evansblue (EB) staining; Ultrastructural changes of BBB were observed by transmission electron microscopy; The levels of ROS, MDA, and SOD activities, which are related to oxidative stress, were detected by kits; The expression levels of MMP-9 were detected by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot; The protein expression levels of Occludin, ZO-1, and Claudin-5 in TJP were determined by double staining of immunofluorescence and Western blot. Results:BYHWD can reduce neurological deficit scores, alleviate the brain histopathological damage, alleviate the disruption of blood-brain barrier structure, prolonged the dense region of tight junction structure, attenuated the edema of the brain in the ischemic side, and reduce the BBB permeability in MCAO / R rats. BYHWD can decrease the levels of ROS and MDA, increase the activity of SOD, decrease the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and increase the protein expression levels of Occludin, Claudin-5, and ZO-1. Conclusions: BYHWD can increase BBB tight junction protein expression levels, reduce the permeability of the BBB, protect the ultrastructure of the BBB, and reduce brain edema, and its mechanism may be related to the antioxidant stress of BYHWD and inhibition of MMP-9 activation.

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    • Effects of decoction of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. and jujuba against breast cancer of different molecular phenotypes via PI3k/Akt pathway

      maliwei, YAO Hongyu, CHEN Zhe, NI Shiyu, CHEN Song, LI Jing, LIU Jicheng

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the effect of decoction of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud. and jujuba (DEFSJ) against estrogen receptor (ER) negative (-) and ER positive (+) of breast cancer via PI3k/Akt pathway, and to provide reference for targeted treatment of breast cancer. Methods DEFSJ extract was prepared and analysed by using UHPLC-Triple Quad. DEFSJ containing serum (CS) was prepared by a method of serumal pharmacology. Different concentrations of DEFSJ-CS were applied to (ER-) MDA-MB-453 cells and (ER ) MCF-7 of breast cancer in vitro for 48 h. Flow cytometry was used to detect the distribution of cellular cycle,DNA ladder assay was used to assess the degree of apoptosis,and Western blot was used to detect the expression of PI3k/Akt pathway-related proteins. The expressions of FoxO3a, FoxO1a and Bim mRNA were detected by a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qrt-PCR) method. Nuclear translocation of FoxO3a protein was detected by a confocal laser microscopy. Results Five batches of the DEFSJ extract were analysed by using UPLC, and the results showed that the preparation technology was feasible and the quality was controllable, ensuring the accuracy of pharmacological experiments results. DEFSJ-CS can block cells in G2/M phase (P<0.05,P<0.01). The cells treated with DEFSJ-CS emerged the typical apoptotic ladder in DNA ladder experiment. Compared with negative control group, DEFSJ-CS can decrease the proteins expression of p-PI3k,p-Akt,p-FoxO3a and p-FoxO1a (P<0.05, P<0.01) and can increase the proteins expression of Bim (P<0.05, P<0.01), and can decrease the mRNAs expression of FoxO3a and FoxO1a (P<0.05, P<0.01) and can increase the mRNA expression of Bim (P<0.05, P<0.01), and can enhance nuclear translocation of FoxO3a protein in the cells. Besides, these datas all showed that DEFSJ-CS had better effect on (ER-) MDA-MB-453 cells than (ER ) MCF-7 cells. Conclusion The regulatory effect of the DEFSJ extract on anti-breast cancer is involves the PI3k/Akt pathway, and the effect is varies with phenotypic differences.

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    • To explore the effect of Bufei Jianpi Formula on mitochondrial damage of skeletal muscle in COPD rats based on IRS-1/PI3K signaling axis

      shentingting, lisuyun, liya, xuanyinshuang, lijingmei, Ligaofeng, hanbingyang

      Abstract:

      Objective To explore the effects of Bufei Jianpi Formula (BJF) on mitochondrial damage of skeletal muscle in COPD rats by regulating IRS-1/PI3K signaling axis. Methods 60 SPF SD rats were randomly divided into blank group, model group (COPD stable stage group), BJF group, pioglitazone group (PIO group), BJF PIO group and aminophylline group, with 10 rats per group. The stable COPD rat model was established by the method of smoking and nasal drip (Klebsiella pneumoniae). The samples were taken from the 9th week to the end of the 20th week, and the weight of the rats was measured every week. Routine sections and HE staining were performed on lung tissue and skeletal muscle tissue respectively, and the corresponding pathological changes were observed under light microscope. Lung function of rats was observed by whole body plethysmography (WBP) at week 0, 8 and 20, including tidal volume (VT) and peak expiratory flow, respectively. PEF), 50% tidal volume expiratory flow (EF50). The mRNA expression of IRS-1, Leptin, PGC1-α and PI3K in rat skeletal muscle was detected by qPCR. The expression of PGC-1α, TFAM, IRS-1, PI3K, AKT, p-AKT and Leptin in rat skeletal muscle tissue was detected by WB technique. Results Compared with the Control group, there were a large number of inflammatory cells infiltrated in the alveolar interstitium and bronchus in the Model group, some alveolar walls were broken and fused to form air cavities, and the fibrous network was destroyed. Compared with Model group, the rupture of alveolar wall and destruction of fibroid network were improved in all groups after medication treatment, and the inflammatory cell infiltration in bronchus was reduced, especially in BJF group and Am group. Compared with the Model group, the skeletal muscle pathology of each group after medication treatment could improve the arrangement space, atrophy and fracture of muscle fibers in different degrees, and the cytoplasmic staining of muscle cells was uneven, among which the BJF group had a more significant effect. Compared with Control group, PEF, VT and EF50 in Model group were significantly decreased from week 8 (P<0.01), while PEF and EF50 in BJF, BJF PIO and Am groups were significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with Control group, mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PGC1α and PI3K in Model group were significantly decreased(P<0.01), while Leptin mRNA expression level was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with Model group, Leptin mRNA expression levels in four medication groups were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while IRS-1 mRNA expression levels in BJF, PIO and BJF PIO groups were significantly increased (P<0.01). The mRNA expression level of PGC-1α in BJF and BJF PIO groups was significantly higher than that in Model group (P<0.01). Compared with Model group, the expression level of PI3K mRNA in BJF, BJF PIO and Am groups was significantly increased (P < 0.01). Compared with Control group, the protein expression levels of PGC-1α, IRS-1 and PI3K in Model group were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while the protein expression level of Leptin was significantly increased (P<0.01). Compared with Model group, the expression level of PGC-1α protein in BJF group was significantly increased (P<0.05), and the expression level of IRS-1 protein in BJF PIO and BJF groups was significantly increased compared with Model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The expression level of PI3K protein in Am, BJF and BJF PIO groups was significantly higher than that in Model group (P<0.01), especially in BJF PIO group. Compared with Control group, the protein expressions of TFAM and P-Akt in quadriceps femoris tissue of Model group were significantly decreased, while the protein expressions of TFAM and P-Akt were increased in all treatment groups, but there was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05).Conclusion By regulating IRS-1/PI3K signaling axis, Bufei Jiempi can improve the mitochondrial damage of skeletal muscle, increase the expression of mitochondrial coactivator PGC-1α and mitochondrial transcription factor TFAM, enhance mitochondrial biosynthesis, and reduce the pathological damage of lung and skeletal muscle tissue.

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    • LIMK1 promotes the progression of cervical cancer by up-regulating the ROS/Src pathway

      Jia Yajing, Du Naiyi, Zhao Wei, Li Yongping, Liu Yakun

      Abstract:

      Abstract: Objective To explore the effect of LIMK1 on the progression of cervical cancer (CC). Methods LIMK1-overexpressed human cervical cancer HeLa cells were constructed and inoculated subcutaneously in nude mice. The tumor volume was observed and the expressions of NOX2, NOX4, p-Src, p-RUNX3, RUNX3, and MMP-9 proteins in the tumor cells were detected by Western blot assay. LIMK1-overexpressed HeLa cells were cultured under 5%O2 and added with antioxidants. The protein expressions of LIMK1, NOX4, p-Src, p-RUNX3, RUNX3, and MMP-9 in the cells were detected by Western blot assay. The cell migration ability was detected by scratch assay. Transwell assay was used to detect cell migration and invasion ability. Monoclonal proliferation assay was used to detect cell proliferation ability. Results The tumor volume of nude mice inoculated with LIMK1-overexpressed HeLa cells increased significantly, and NOX2, NOX4, p-Src, p-RUNX3, and MMP-9 proteins increased, while RUNX3 protein expression decreased. In LIMK1-overexpressed HeLa cells, the protein expressions of LIMK1, NOX4, p-Src, p-RUNX3, and MMP-9 were increased, RUNX3 protein expression was decreased, while the cell migration, invasion, and proliferation ability were increased. However, after adding antioxidants, the expression levels of NOX4, p-Src, p-RUNX3, RUNX3, and MMP-9 proteins, and the ability of cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were not different from those of HeLa cells with normal expression of LIMK1. Conclusion LIMK1 promotes the progression of cervical cancer by promoting the ROS/Src pathway, thereby promoting the migration, invasion, and proliferation ability of cervical cancer cells.

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    • Research progress of SHP2 in digestive system tumors

      WANG Peng, FAN Jianchun, JIA Juming, DIAO Qingfei, WU Xueliang, Xue Jun

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】 Currently malignant tumors have become one of the major diseases threatening human health,with disability and mortality rates increasing year by year.Protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP2) of Src homology 2, an important member of the PTP family, is a tyrosine phosphatase with a wide range of functions,whose expression is elevated in a wide range of solid tumors,and plays a important regulatory role in invasion,metastasis,proliferation,apoptosis and drug resistance.A large number of studies have shown that SHP2 plays a very important role in the genesis and development of many solid tumors,but there is no systematic report on the role of SHP2 in digestive system tumors.Based on this paper,we reviewed the biological functions and clinical significance of SHP2 in seven different tumors of the digestive system,explored its roles and mechanisms in different cancer development stages,and summarized and looked forward to the development of SHP2 inhibitors,to further search for potential targets for effective early diagnosis and gene therapy,which is of great significance for the improvement of cancer patients' survival rate.

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    • Research progress on the relationship between regulatory cell death and Dilated cardiomyopathy

      QiuYueqing, WangZhentao

      Abstract:

      Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is one of the common primary diseases of heart failure and arrhythmias. With the continuous deepening of research in recent years, the intrinsic molecular mechanism of regulatory cell death (RCD) has gradually become clear. Researchers have found that RCD plays a very important role in the occurrence and development of DCM. RCD mainly includes apoptosis, necrotic apoptosis, Pyroptosis, Ferroptosis, autophagy, etc. They have certain correlation and can interact and regulate each other. This article provides an overview of the current research status on the mechanisms of the five RCD modes involved in DCM, in order to provide reference for future related experiments and clinical studies.

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    • Research progress on the interaction between gut microbiota and microRNA in inflammatory bowel disease

      KONG Binghui, BAI Longzhou, YANG Li

      Abstract:

      Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disorder characterized by an immune response to factors in the intestinal environment. Dysregulation of the intestinal flora may lead to the development of inflammation. Studies suggest that fecal transplants, probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary interventions may play a potential role in reshaping the intestinal flora and treating the disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in physiological processes, including cell development, proliferation, and apoptosis. In addition, miRNAs are important in inflammatory processes and play a role in regulating pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. MiRNA profiles may serve as a diagnostic tool for IBD and prognostic markers for the disease. The relationship between miRNAs and intestinal flora has not been fully elucidated, and recent studies have demonstrated their roles in regulating the intestinal flora and inducing ecological dysbiosis. In turn, the flora can regulate miRNA expression and improve intestinal homeostasis. It is important to continue exploring this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to analyze the relationship between gut microbiota and miRNAs in IBD and identify possible precision-targeted therapies for IBD.

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    • Study on the effects of various herbs and different proportions of herbs in Huidu Yinhua Powder on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

      LI Yufen, JIANG Shuang, SONG Wu, JIANG Tao, LIU Chang, ZHOU Haofang, TANG Yating, SU Xin

      Abstract:

      Objective: To study the inhibitory ability of Huidu Yinhua Powder, from “Orthodox Manual of External Medicine”, on methicillin?resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as the inhibitory effect of virulence factor α-hemolysin (Hla) activity and biofilm formation, and at the same time, to explore the optimal ratios of Huidu Yinhua Powder, to provide experimental support for the new use of the ancient formula. Methods: The inhibitory effects of Huidu Yinhua Powder and the herbs in the formula on USA300 were analyzed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and disk diffusion assay (K-B method). Hemolysis assay, neutralization assay, Oligomerization assay, Western Blot (WB) to verify in which form the drug inhibits the activity of the virulence factor alpha-hemolysin (Hla). The biofilm assay was performed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of Huidu Yinhua Powder on biofilm, while finally orthogonal experiments were performed to explore the optimal ratios of Huidu Yinhua Powder. Results: Huidu Yinhua Powder inhibited the MRSA strain with a MIC90 of 64 mg/mL and an MBC of 256 mg/mL, with antibacterial circle diameter of 7.50±0.50 mm. Huidu Yinhua Powder inhibits Hla activity by inhibiting Hla secretion and the minimum effective concentration (MEC) was 16 mg/mL, while the MEC of biofilm was 8 mg/mL. In Huidu Yinhua Powder, Honeysuckle and Astragalus only affected the hemolytic activity of MRSA and the formation of biofilm without inhibiting the growth of bacteria, the hemolytic activity MEC and the biofilm MEC of both of them were 32 mg/mL. Glycyrrhiza had a strong bacterial inhibitory capacity, with a MIC90 of 8 mg/mL and a biofilm MEC of 1 mg/mL, without showing inhibitory hemolytic activity at subinhibitory concentrations. The final orthogonal experiment showed that when the ratio of honeysuckle: astragalus: glycyrrhiza in Huidu yinhua Powder was 1:2:4, the MIC90 was 16 mg/mL, the hemolytic activity MEC was 8 mg/mL, and the biofilm MEC was 4 mg/mL, all of which were the lowest among the nine groups. Conclusion: Huidu Yinhua Powder affects the hemolytic activity and biofilm formation of MRSA at sub inhibitory concentrations, with the optimal ratio of honeysuckle, astragalus, and glycyrrhiza being 1:2:4.

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    • Effect of vitamin D on the structure and diversity of intestinal flora in spontaneously diabetic rats

      chen lin, tan hong xing, hao li ping, li yan yan

      Abstract:

      [Abstract] Objective To investigate the effect of vitamin D (VD) on intestinal flora in spontaneously diabetic rats. Methods Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF rats) were randomly divided into control group (Con), VD control group (VD), model group (T2DM) and VD intervention group (VD+T2DM). Fasting blood glucose profile and oral glucose tolerance level were detected in rats in each group. The 16S rDNA sequencing technology was used to detect the changes in rat intestinal flora, and OTU analysis (Venn diagram), Alpha diversity analysis (chao1, observed species, PD whole tree, shannon and simpson), Beta diversity analysis [principal coordinate analysis (PCoA)], flora structure and colony species variability analysis [linear discriminant analysis and influence factor (LEfSe) analysis]. Results VD intervention significantly improved fasting blood glucose levels and insulin resistance in T2DM rats (P<0.05).Alpha diversity results showed no significant differences in chao1, observed species, PD whole tree, shannon and simpson indices between T2DM and VD+T2DM groups (P>0.05) ; Beta diversity analysis showed that the VD+T2DM group had more species similarity with the Con group compared with the T2DM group. The dominant bacteria of rat intestinal flora in each group were significantly different; compared with the T2DM group, the VD+T2DM group showed decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes and increased abundance of Firmicutes and Clostridium XIVa. Conclusion VD improved fasting glucose elevation and insulin resistance in T2DM rats; VD improved the structure of intestinal flora, decreased Bacteroidetes, and elevated Firmicutes and Clostridium XIVa abundance in T2DM rats.

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    • Overview of in vitro skin models of transdermal drug delivery system

      LiuYan, HuXiaolei, XuKeHong, ZhaoHaiRong, WuXiuMei, YangZiZhong, ZhangChengGui, ZhaoYu, GaoPengFei

      Abstract:

      Skin modeling of transdermal drug delivery systems refers to the experimental models which can mimic the structure and function of human skin to explore and evaluate the absorption, penetration and efficacy of medicines in transdermal drug delivery. It provides alternative to traditional human skin experiments and reducing the utility of human skin in medicines research, which is convenient, controllable, and cost-effective . For the skin models of transdermal drug delivery systems, this paper introduces commonly used animal skin models, artificial skin models, and recombinant human skin models from the perspective of the transdermal absorption pathway of medicines, and analyzes its advantages and disadvantages as well as its applications, so as to provide references for the research and development of transdermal formulations and topical therapies and so on.

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    • AMPK: Diverse Regulatory Mechanisms and New Perspectives for Disease Treatment

      Ning Jinghua, zhang xin, zhang Yuzhe

      Abstract:

      The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a conserved cellular energy Adenosine monophosphate, plays an important role in regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, autophagy, phosphorylation, crosstalk, and glucose and lipid metabolism. AMPK is activated when the body is low in energy or under certain extreme conditions, and it's suppressed when there's an excess of nutrients to maintain the energy balance. In addition, the regulatory mechanism of AMPK signaling pathway mediating ferroptosis also reflects its unique role. AMPK plays a special regulatory function in different organelles, which provides a new direction for disease therapy. It is also a therapeutic target for the prevention of diseases such as reproductive system diseases, aging, cancer, inflammation and cardiac dysfunction. This article reviews the damage of cellular energy imbalance to the body's microenvironment. AMPK stimulates its potential therapeutic potential in diseases and drugs through diverse signal regulatory mechanisms, it provides a new way of treatment for different system diseases. This review summarizes the diverse regulatory mechanisms of AMPK signaling pathway, and provides theoretical reference for cancer therapy and other diseases therapy targeting AMPK.

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    • Discussion on the Mechanism of "Brain-Spleen Inflammation Coupling" in Rat Model of Acute Ischemic Stroke Stasis Toxin Syndrome

      dongyilei, Liu Yue, Li Junyuan, Fu Jianhua, Zhang Yunling, Yao Mingjiang

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】Objective: To investigate the correlation between brain injury and spleen damage in rat models of acute ischemic stroke and stasis interaction, and its effect on the signal axis of MCP-1/CCR2 chemokine, and to provide experimental basis for the mechanism of "brain-spleen inflammatory coupling" in spleen lesions caused by acute ischemic stroke. Methods: Forty male SD rats were randomly divided into sham group, carrageenan/yeast stasis syndrome group (Carrageenan/Yeast, CA/Y), middle cerebral artery occlusion group (MCAO), middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), middle cerebral artery stasis syndrome group (MCAO CA/Y), 10 rats in each group. The CA/Y group and the MCAO CA/Y group were injected with 10 mg穔g-1 carrageenan, 10 mg穔g-1 intraperitoneally on the first day of molding, and 2 mg穔g-1 of dry yeast suspension were injected subcutaneously on the second day, and the MCAO group and MCAO CA/Y group were established by wire embolism on the second day. 24 h after cerebral infarction model, the neurological deficit score was performed on each group of rats, the percentage of cerebral infarction area was observed by TTC staining, the spleen weight was determined, and the correlation between the percentage of cerebral infarction area and spleen weight was further analyzed by Spearman correlation coefficient, the pathological morphology of brain tissue and spleen tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, and monocyte-1 (monocyte) was detected in rat plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). chemotactic protein 1, MCP-1), interferon-γ γ (IFN-γ) content, western blot method to detect ischemic side brain tissue chemokine C-C-motif receptor 2 (CCR2) protein expression. Results: Compared with the ham group, the neurological deficit score, cerebral infarction area, MCP-1 and IFN-γ content in plasma were significantly increased (P<0.01), spleen weight decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the expression of CCR2 protein in brain tissue was also significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in the MCAO group and the MCAO CA/Y group. The area of cerebral infarction increased significantly (P<0.01), the weight of the spleen decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the expression of CCR2 protein in brain tissue and spleen tissue was also significantly up-regulated (P<0.05), compared with the MCAO group, the area of cerebral infarction in the MCAO CA/Y group was significantly increased (P<0.01) and the weight of the spleen decreased significantly (P<0.05). Spearman correlation analysis showed that spleen weight was negatively correlated with the percentage of cerebral infarction area (P<0.01, r=-0.9711). The pathological morphological observation results showed that the pathological changes in the MCAO CA/Y group were the most serious, cerebral liquefaction necrosis foci could be seen in the brain tissue cortex, the arrangement of neuronal cells in the lesions was sparse, disordered, volume atrophy, a small number of vacuoles and nuclear solidification, most of the neuronal cells were red degeneration and necrosis, microglia hyperplasia was obvious, small blood vessels were significantly increased, and interstitial lipid degeneration was superb; The density of periarterial lymph sheath cells in part of the spleen tissue is reduced, and the marginal area is widened. Conclusion: A correlation between brain and spleen injury could be found after acute ischemic stroke with stasis and toxins syndrome, and the chemokine signaling axis of MCP-1/CCR2 might be involved in the mechanism of "brain-spleen inflammation coupling".

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    • Effect of lidocaine regulating Hippo-YAP signal pathway on ischemia-reperfusion injury in orthotopic liver transplantation rats

      Liu Yue, Akbar Nurmaimaiti, Ye Jian-rong

      Abstract:

      Objective: To explore the effect of lidocaine (LID) on ischemia-reperfusion injury in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) rats and to analyze its mechanism of action. Methods: 60 rats were randomly divided into control group, model group, low-dose LID group, medium-dose LID group, high-dose LID group, and Verteporfin group, with 10 rats in each group, except for the control group, and other rats were used to construct OLT models. The pathological changes in liver tissue was observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, the serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were detected by automatic biochemical analyzer, the liver tissue inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL) -6, IL-1β and IL-10 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by fluorescence probe method, the malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected by thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) was detected by nitrogen blue tetrazole colorimetry, the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was detected by spectrophotometer method, the apoptosis of liver histiocyte was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) , and the expression of mammalian STE20 like protein kinase (MST1), phosphorylation (p) - MST1, large tumor suppressor factor 1 (LATS1), p-LATS1, Yes associated protein (YAP), p-YAP, as well as apoptosis related proteins B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 related X protein (Bax) were detected by western blotting (WB). Results: Compared with control group, the liver tissue in model group rats showed injury, liver cells necrosis and a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration, the cell apoptosis rate, serum AST, ALT, TBIL, LDH activity, liver tissue TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MDA, ROS, and Bax levels significantly increased, the liver tissue IL-10, SOD, GSH-Px, Bcl-2, p-MST1/MST1, p-LATS1/LATS1 and p-YAP/YAP proteins expression levels were significantly reduced (P<0.05). Compared with model group, the liver tissue injury was reduced in low-dose LID group, medium-dose LID group, and high-dose LID group, the cell apoptosis rate, serum AST, ALT, TBIL, LDH activity, liver tissue TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, MDA, ROS and Bax levels were significantly reduced, the liver tissue IL-10, SOD, GSH-Px, Bcl-2, p-MST1/MST1, p-LATS1/LATS1, and p-YAP/YAP proteins expression levels were significantly increased (P<0.05). Hippo-YAP signaling pathway inhibitor Verteporfin reversed the improvement effect of LID on ischemia-reperfusion injury in OLT rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: LID may activate the Hippo-YAP pathway, which reduce inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and liver cell apoptosis, and improve liver ischemia-reperfusion injury in OLT rats.

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    • Overview of the research of Q fever in animal models

      li jinchun, yin jiaxiang

      Abstract:

      Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii infection, which is widely spread in nature. Animal models are important tools to study the etiology and pathogenesis of infectious diseases and evaluate the effectiveness of vaccines. In recent years, a variety of animal models such as invertebrates, rodents and non-human primates have been used to study Q fever. This paper summarizes the research status of different Q fever animal models, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these models, and summarizes the requirements and standards of future modeling work.

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    • Advances in the application of laser speckle contrast imaging in animal models of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

      Tangxin, tanjie

      Abstract:

      Laser speckle contrast imaging technology can be used to dynamically measure microcirculation blood flow in tissues or organs in a visual and quantifiable way. Because of its advantages of in vivo detection, real-time imaging and simple operation, it has been applied in many fields of microcirculation detection.The animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is mainly constructed by reducing the bilateral common carotid artery blood flow to the brain, which can cause long-term insufficient cerebral blood supply. Laser speckle contrast imaging technology can observe and analyze the cortical cerebral blood flow, collateral circulation opening, neurovascular coupling response, etc., in the animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion , so as to judge the success of animal model modeling and the therapeutic effect of intervention methods. In this paper, the application and advantages and disadvantages of laser speckle contrast imaging technology in the animal model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion were summarized in order to provide new ideas for clinical treatment and scientific research.

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    • Research progress of berberine in the field of neuroprotection in ischemic stroke

      lihongyu, lanrui

      Abstract:

      Berberine is a natural Isoquinoline alkaloid, which can be initially used as a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent in clinical treatment of enteritis, peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, pneumonia and other diseases. In recent years, with the in-depth study of the pharmacological effects of Berberine, more and more evidence shows that Berberine has neuroprotective effects on ischemic stroke. In this review, we introduced the intervention of Berberine on risk factors of ischemic stroke, and discussed the neuroprotective effects of Berberine in different mechanisms of ischemic stroke in detail, aiming to provide some reference for clinical and basic research in this field.

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    • Advances in Research on Mechanisms Related to Myocardial Regeneration in Neonatal Rats

      chenmengqi

      Abstract:

      Cardiovascular disease is a health hazard to humans and systolic heart failure due to myocardial infarction is a major cause of death. It was previously thought that myocardial cells of adult mammalian heart possess a limited ability to proliferate and renew themselves, and that after ischemic injury, a large number of myocardial cells are lost and eventually replaced by non-contractile scar tissue. In contrast, it has been widely reported that mammals have the ability to regenerate myocardium which is restricted to early postnatal life, and that it is strong enough to repair damaged heart tissue. The discovery of myocardial regeneration in neonatal heart has provided an ideal animal model to investigate the mechanisms that affect myocardial cell proliferation, and subsequently many mechanisms that can reverse myocardial cell cycle arrest and promote myocardial cell proliferation have been revealed. In this paper, we review the factors affecting myocardial regeneration gene expression (ncRNAs, transcription factors, etc.), myocardial regeneration-related signaling pathways, and the regulation of myocardial regeneration by non-myocardial cells (extracellular matrix, immune response, epicardium, etc.), so as to provide directions for achieving myocardial regeneration after myocardial injury in adult mammals.

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    • Establishment of genetic monitoring methods for experimental quail

      heyang, zhangxiulin, zhangqiuyu, zhangxiaolu, fubo, wangwendong, duxiaoyan, chenzhenwen, lichanglong

      Abstract:

      Objective To establish a genetic monitoring method for laboratory quails. Methods Quail microsatellite loci were screened through literature search, and microsatellite DNA loci suitable for quail were screened by interspecific transfer method in quail closely related species, chickens and ducks. Quail liver tissue DNA was extracted as a template, and the corresponding loci were screened by PCR amplification and agarose gel electrophoresis. Finally, based on the amplification of the selected microsatellite loci, the number of alleles, and polymorphism, microsatellite loci combinations for quail genetic quality detection were selected and detection methods were established. Results We preliminary determined 23 microsatellite loci for genetic monitoring of closed-colony laboratory quails. Conclusion A genetic monitoring method for laboratory quails is preliminary established.

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    • Innovation and exploration of Medical Laboratory Animal Science teaching based on smart teaching environment

      YangZiHao

      Abstract:

      Objective In the traditional laboratory zoology lecture environment, there is less teacher-student interaction, less student interest and less engagement in learning.In order to further improve the teaching quality of laboratory zoology, Methods this teaching and research department based on the different teaching environment of multimedia classroom and intelligent classroom, the theoretical course teaching of Medical Laboratory Zoology as the research ,object, the course lecture format, teaching mode, teaching methods and other aspects of innovation and exploration. The study used questionnaires to understand changes in student engagement in learning and preferences for smart classroom use, and NVivo qualitative analysis software to code student classroom behaviour. Results The smart teaching environment resulted in higher student interest and more frequent teacher-student interaction in the classroom. At the same time, students are significantly more engaged in learning than in traditional teaching, with higher correct rates on in-class and post-lesson exercises and a better grasp of concepts related to laboratory zoology. Conclusions In summary, the smart teaching environment can bring students a better feeling and experience, improve their interest in laboratory zoology, increase classroom learning engagement and achieve good teaching results.

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    • Progression of tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside in mice with premature ovarian insuffici-ency model at different time points

      马林纳, makun, fanxiaodi, luojie, lijiani, zhanghan

      Abstract:

      Objective The changes of relevant indexes in the mice model of early-onset ovarian insufficiency caused by tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside were discussed, and the best time point for intervention was determined. Methods Forty female ICR mice were randomly divided into blank group, A, B, C, and D model groups, with 8 mice in each group. The blank group was given gavage purified water for 14d (0.01ml/10g), and the remaining groups were given tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside suspension (80mg/kg, 0.01ml/10g) for 1d (A model group), 3d (B model group), 7d (C model group), 14d (D model group), and the materials were taken in batches. Weigh the body weight, wet weight uterus and bilateral ovaries of mice in each group; Serum FSH, LH, E2, P, AMH, INH-B and T contents were detected by enzyme-linked immunoassay. HE staining observed the number and development status of follicles and corpus luteum at all levels of mice in each group. TUNEL fluorescence staining method detected the apoptosis area in the ovaries of mice in each group. The IHC method detected the positive expression of VEGFA, CD34 and EPO proteins in the ovaries of mice in each group. The mRNA expression of HIF-1α, SDF-1 and CXCR4 in each group of mice was detected by PCR. Results Compared with the blank group, the changes of indicators in model A did not meet the POI modeling standard. The ovarian index, uterine index and body weight of mice in the B model group decreased significantly (P<0.01), the weight of the C model group decreased significantly (P<0.01), and the ovarian index of the D model group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The serum indexes of the B, C and D model groups increased the contents of FSH and LH (P<0.01 or P<0.05), and the contents of E2, PROG, AMH, INH-B and T decreased (P<0.01). The number of basal follicles, presinus follicles, sinusoidal follicles, antral follicles, preovulatory follicles and corpus luteum decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05) and the number of atresia follicles increased significantly (P<0.01) in the B, C and D model groups. The apoptosis area of TUNEL fluorescent staining in A, B, C, and D model groups increased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The positive expression of CD34, VEGFA and EPO in the B, C and D model groups decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05). The expression of mRNA in the A and B model groups of HIF-1α, SDF-1 and CXCR4 was significantly increased (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Compared with the B model group, the relevant indexes of the C and D model groups changed significantly, indicating that the C and D models were more serious and tended to develop POF. Conclusion The B model group is the turning point of ovarian function from impaired POI to irreversible POF, suggesting that 3d administration of tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside is the best time to induce POI disease model and effective drug intervention.

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    • Research progress of noncoding RNA in methamphetamine-induced addiction and neurotoxicity

      zhang shu wei, cheng hao, wang hao wei, miao lin, li yi, guan li na, zeng xiao feng

      Abstract:

      Methamphetamine (METH) is highly addictive and neurotoxic, which can cause cognitive and memory dysfunction in abusers. The harm of METH lies not only in its own toxicity, but also in the high physical and mental dependence of drug addicts, often causing mental disorders and causing violent behavior, bringing great safety risks to society. Non-coding RNA (ncRNA) does not code for proteins and is an important factor in regulating gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Studies have shown that ncRNA plays an important regulatory role in methamphetamine-induced addiction and neurotoxicity, but the specific mechanism is unclear. This article reviews the current research progress of ncRNA in regulating METH-induced addiction and neurotoxicity, in order to provide a reference for ncRNA as a forensic identification index and potential drug intervention target for METH abusers.

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    • Advances in the mechanism of action of cyclic RNA in Parkinson's disease

      liujuan, Li Yanjie, Qin hewei, Ma luyao, Zhao nannan, Xu zhenhua

      Abstract:

      Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the degenerative death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, exhibiting a range of motor and non-motor symptoms that have a serious impact on the quality of life of patients. Circular RNA (circRNA, CircRNA) is a covalent closed-loop noncoding RNA that plays an important role in the progression of PD disease. This article reviews the involvement of circRNA in oxidative stress, regulation of transcriptional levels, neuroinflammation, autophagy, and α-synuclein.

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    • Analysis of application characteristics of acute liver injury animal model based on data mining

      huyilong, zhangshuangli, qiuguangnan, fengyifan, miaomingsan, miaojinxin

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the modeling elements of various types of animal models for acute liver injury, and to provide references and suggestions for the establishment and evaluation of animal models for ALI. Methods The animal experimental literature of acute liver injury from 2002 to 2022 was searched in the databases of China Knowledge Network, WanFang, Chongqing Vip, Chinese Medical Journal Full Text Data, PubMed, etc. The animal species, positive control drugs, modeling methods, modeling drugs and drug administration of the animal models of acute liver injury involved in the literature were summarized and summarized. The results were analyzed using Excel, SPSS Modeler18.0 and Cytoscape3.8.2. Results A total of 896 papers were included in the database. The most used animal models for acute liver injury were male KM mice; the modeling methods were mainly chemical liver injury, alcoholic liver injury, drug-related liver injury and immune liver injury, and the corresponding main modeling methods were : ① intraperitoneal injection of 10.0 mL 0.1% CCl4 vegetable oil, 24 h before the experiment; ② gavage of 12.0 mL 50.0%-56.0% ethanol, 16 h before the experiment; ③intraperitoneal injection of APAP 300 mg/kg, 24 h before the experiment; ④ tail vein injection of Con A 20 mg/kg, 8 h before the experiment. The evaluation of the model was based on liver pathological indexes as the gold index, combined with biochemical indexes Serum ALT, AST, liver tissue homogenate SOD, MDA content and activity were used as direct indicators. Conclusions Since the causes of acute liver injury vary in clinical practice, the preparation of animal models of acute liver injury should be based on the specific study content and characteristics of the study, and the corresponding modeling methods should be selected.

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    • The mechanism of Yantiao fang regulating Rho/ROCK signaling pathway on apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in mice with acute gastrointestinal injury caused by sepsis

      Chen Qian, Wang D, Zhang DY, Jia SL, Wang LH, Cao YJ, Li YH

      Abstract:

      Objective To investigate the effect of Yantiao Formula on apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in mice with acute gastrointestinal injury caused by sepsis by regulating Rho/ROCK signaling pathway. Methods 70 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into blank group (10 mice), sham operation group (10 mice) and model group (50 mice).Mice in blank group were fed normally without treatment.Sham operation group mice only open free cecum without perforation ligation;A mouse model of acute gastrointestinal injury caused by sepsis was established by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). The mice were randomly divided into model group, Yantiao formula low-dose, medium-dose and high-dose groups, and ROCK inhibitor group.Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of mice ileum.Serum levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined by ELISA.The expression of PCNA and Ki-67 in mouse ileal cells was detected by immunohistochemistry.The expressions of Caspase 3 and Bax were detected by western blotting.The expression of ROCK mRNA and MLC mRNA in the Rho/ROCK pathway of mouse ileum were detected by RT-qPCR. Results The intestinal mucosa of the ileum tissue of mice with acute gastrointestinal injury caused by sepsis was atrophied obviously, villi were disordered, rupture and shedding were observed, epithelial cells were necrotic and shedding, inflammatory cell infiltration was obvious, and Chiu's pathological score was increased.Compared with blank group and sham group, the serum levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and mRNA levels of Caspase 3, Bax, ROCK and MLC in peripheral blood of mice in model group were increased, while the levels of anti-inflammatory mediators (IL-10) and expressions of PCNA and Ki-67 in ileum were decreased.Compared with model group, the histopathological changes of ileum in all Yantiao fang groups were improved to varying degrees with the increase of dose: the pathological score of Chiu's was decreased, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in serum were decreased, and the levels of IL-10 were increased.In addition, the expressions of PCNA and Ki-67 were increased, while the expressions of Caspase 3, Bax, ROCK mRNA and MLC mRNA were decreased. Conclusion Yantiao fang can inhibit the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in mice with acute gastrointestinal injury caused by sepsis by regulating Rho/ROCK signaling pathway, so as to reduce the inflammatory reaction of intestinal tissue and ultimately prevent the damage of intestinal mucosal tissue.

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    • Research status and trend of animal models of depression: a bibliometric analysis based on CiteSpace

      YANG JIAHUI, LIN MENG, LUO XIAOQUAN, LUO TAO, GONG MEIFU

      Abstract:

      【Abstract】Objective With the help of literature metrology, the scientific literature in the field of animal models of depression was analyzed, so as to better understand the development trends and hot spots in this field.Methods We obtained publications on depression and animal models from 2013 to 2022 from the Web of Science core set (WOSCC) database. Citespace 6.1R 1(64-bit) Basic was used to analyze the annual publications, countries, institutions, authors and keywords related to this field.Results A total of 1000 articles were included in this study. From 2013 to 2022, the number of papers published gradually increased and stabilized. In terms of the number of articles, the United States has the most published articles (256) and the most Polish Academy of Sciences (50) . Wegener Gregers is considered the most influential author in the field, with 23 published articles. When analyzing keywords, “Animal Model” was the most frequent, followed by“Major depression”. Conclusions This study highlights the important research trends and hot spots in the field of animal models of depression. The US, China and Japan are leading the way in terms of publication, indicating their significant contribution to the development of animal models of depression. However, international cooperation is limited and there is more cooperation within institutions and groups. The field focuses on signaling pathways and therapeutic approaches to determine the pathogenesis of depression and better treatments. The study provides a visual analysis of trends in depression research to help researchers keep abreast of the latest developments.

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    • Effect of gender difference on the model of rheumatoid arthritis induced by bovine type II collagen

      Sun Wenting, Wan Yingying, Yang Jiaxi, Wang Wenqian, Wang Haonan, Ye Wanting, Kou Qiuai

      Abstract:

      Objective To construct female and male bovine collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models and compare the effects of gender differences on the joint and extra-articular manifestations of CIA models. Methods The CIA model was induced by injection of bovine type II collagen and Freund's complete adjuvant into female and male SD rats. The general condition, arthritis index, foot swelling, serum inflammatory factors and plasminogen activator inhibitor levels, spleen index, knee and ankle joint pathology, right rear paw bone destruction, and pulmonary interstitial lesions of rats in each group were evaluated. Results The arthritis index of female CIA rats was significantly higher than that of male CIA rats on the 21st day after initial immunization (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference in the degree of foot swelling between the two groups at any time point of observation (P>0.05); Serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin1β and spleen index of female CIA rats were significantly higher than those of male CIA rats (P<0.001; P<0.001; P<0.05), there was no significant difference in plasminogen activator inhibitor levels (P>0.05); The scores of inflammatory cell infiltration and synovial hyperplasia in the knee and ankle pathology of female CIA rats were significantly higher than those of male CIA rats (P<0.05), and the cartilage damage of knee joint and the bone damage of right rear paw of female CIA rats were significantly higher than that of male rats (P<0.05); Both male and female CIA rats showed pulmonary interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration and mild fibrosis, but the pulmonary interstitial lesions in females were more severe than those in males. Conclusion Both female and male CIA models constructed with SD rats can have both arthritis and pulmonary interstitial lesions, but the lesion degree of female CIA rats is more serious. When using CIA models for RA related research, attention should be paid to the impact of gender differences.

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    • Effects and mechanism of NCTD on proliferation and apoptosis of human leukemia cells by targeting PPP5C

      zhangxin, cuibingjie, yuguoxing, wangfei, zhaoliang, gaona, dujing

      Abstract:

      Objective To study the effects and mechanism of norcantharidin (NCTD) on proliferation and apoptosis of human leukemia NB4 and K562 cells by targeting phosphoprotein phosphatase 5 catalytic (PPP5C). Methods NB4 and K562 cells were cultured in vitro, and the pcDNA3.1 and PPP5C-pcDNA3.1 plasmids were electroporated into NB4 and K562 cells. NB4 and K562 stable cell lines were screened with geneticin (G418). The protein and mRNA expression levels of PPP5C were identified by Western blot and qRT-PCR. The proliferation ability, migration ability and apoptosis rate of NB4、K562 cells were determined by CCK-8 assay, transwell assay and the Live DeadTM animal cell viability/toxicity detection kit. NB4 and K562 cells were divided into control group and different doses of NCTD group, and cultured in 1640 medium containing 0, 8, 16, 32 μg/ml NCTD. The Live DeadTM animal cell viability/toxicity detection kit detected the number of dead and live cells and cell morphology was recorded by microscope. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of caspase 3, Cleaved caspase 3, JNK, p-JNK, p38, p-p38 and α-tubulin in cells of each group. Results? the proliferation ability of cells, the migration ability and apoptosis rate of NB4、K562 cells are enhanced after overexpression of PPP5C in human leukemia NB4 and K562 cells; Compared with the control group, each concentration group of NCTD promoted apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner; PPP5C overexpression antagonizes the killing effect of NCTD on leukemia cells. Conclusions NCTD can promote the apoptosis of NB4 and K562 cells and inhibit the proliferation of cells by inhibiting PPP5C.

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    • Research on the Mechanism of LSC Immune Escape with Intervention by TCM

      ZHANG Meiling, , CuiYaru, ChengShupeng, LingZhiming

      Abstract:

      Leukaemia is a critical disease with a high incidence in clinic at present, with an extremely high fatality rate. Among them, immune escape from leukaemia stemcells(LSC) is the main factor for recurrence and progression after leukaemia-induced remission. The clinical diagnosis and treatment of TCM has distinct advantages of syndrome differentiation and treatment. Based on the purpose of diagnosis and treatment, the treatment of leukaemia by TCM emphasises the "harmony of yin and yang" to estore human function, which is conducive to improving the body's autoimmunity and conforms to the mechanism of intervention for tumour cell immunity escape. This article discusses the echanism and research progress of TCM intervention in Lsc immune escape from literature research and TCM theory.

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    • Effects of polysaccharide content and anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and antioxidant activity before and after preparation of Mosla chinensis-jiangxiangru

      Maqiuting, Xulei, Zhuyuchen, Xumengting, Zhangwenkai, Liuzhiyong

      Abstract:

      Abstract:Objective:Exploring the changes in polysaccharides in Jiangxiangyu before and after giner juice, and evaluation of polysaccharide anti -inflammatory and antioxidant antioxidant activity before and after the processing. Methods: The content of polysaccharides beforeand after processing was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method(Elsholtzia chinensis polysaccharide-JXRPs, Ginger Elsholtzia chinensis polysaccharide-JZJXRPs); The body internal uses the swelling model of rats and the body fat polysaccharide (LPS) to induce mousemacrophages RAW264.7 inflammation model.The best administration concentration is selected by using cell proliferation (MTT) method, Elisa method measures the expression of IL-6, IL-12, NO, IL-4, and IL-10 in the cells;Observe the bleeding time of mice to evaluate its hemostatic effect by observing the tail -cutting method; finally, use the ability to remove DPPH and ABTS to evaluate its in vitro antioxidant activity.Results: The contents of JXRPs and JZJXRPs were 13% and 22%,As a result of the swelling of rats, after 4h in injection, compared with the model group, JXRPs ppear significant difference in dosage doses of 200 mg/kg (P <0.05), and JZJXRPs When the dose is 100 mg/kg, you can significantly reduce the swelling of rats (P <0.05);The in vitro anti-inflammatory results show that the polysaccharides before and after the processing can significantly inhibit cell secretion of IL-6, IL-12 and NO (P <0.01), promote cell secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 (P <0.01), and the processing of the processing The post -effects are stronger.The results of the mouse break the hemostatic experiment show that: compared with the control group, the JXRPs group can speed up the hemostatic effect but there is no significant difference, and there is asignificant difference in the dosage of the JZJXRPs (P <0.05) in the medium dose (P <0.05), and the High doses have accelerated trend but there is no significant difference; The results of antioxidant activity in vitro showed that JXRPs and JZJXRPs had different degrees of scavenging ability for DPPH and ABTS, with IC50 values of JXRPs of 0.2215 mg/ml and 0.2110 mg/ml of JZXRPs, respectively, and IC50 values of 0.1651 mg/ml and 0.1884 mg/ml of JZJXRPs, respectively.Conclusion:After the Jiangxiangyu is produced by ginger juice, it can promote the dissolution of polysaccharides and increase the polysaccharide content. JZJXRPS anti -inflammatory hemostasis and antioxidant capacity are stronger than JXRPS, which can lay the foundation for the follow -up research and clinical application of JXRPS.

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    • Research progress of SHP-2 in tumor-associated macrophages

      wuxueliang

      Abstract:

      Abstract: Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the dominant cell group in the tumor microenvironment (TME) and are the most important regulatory cells of immune system suppression and tumor cell proliferation in Tmes. Src homologous 2 protein tyrosine phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase that plays an important role in signaling from the cell surface to the nucleus and is a key intracellular regulatory factor mediating cell proliferation and differentiation, involved in a variety of growth factor and cytokine signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that SHP-2 is a key enzyme that determines the function of tumor-associated macrophages, but because of its variable function, it plays different or even opposite roles in different solid tumor microenvironments. Based on this, this paper reviews the function of SHP-2 in TAMs and the role of ShP-2 in related solid tumors, providing a solid scientific basis for tumor immunity and targeted therapy.

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    • Antitumor mechanism of Ardisia Crenata

      renqunli

      Abstract:

      Ardisia Crenata Radix is a traditional Chinese medicine, which belongs to Myrsinaceae, and its main components are coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and volatile oil. Bergenin, ardisicrenoside A, ardisicrenoside B,ardisiacripin A,ardisiacripin B and embelin are active anticancer compounds with the in-depth study of the anti-tumor effect of Ardisia Crenata Radix. They show high potential in oral cancer, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, liver cancer, colon cancer, bladder cancer, cervical cancer and leukemia mainly through inducing tumor cell apoptosis, increasing tumor cytotoxicity, inhibiting cell proliferation, inhibiting tumor cell metastasis and migration, and inducing cell regulatory enzyme cascade reaction. However, the preclinical experimental data of cinnabar root anti-tumor mechanism are lack of high-quality, multi-sample and multi-repeated randomized controlled trials, and the clinical research data are lack of tumor prognosis, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic data. Accurate research experiments and clinical trials should be designed to further explore the pharmacological effects of mining cinnabar root.

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    • Research progress in immunoregulation mechanism of exosomes on bacterial infection

      , Lizhiwei

      Abstract:

      Exosomes are small endosomal derived extracellular vesicles with lipid bilayer structure, which contain substances such as protein, lipids, DNA, RNA, miRNA and lncRNA. Exosomes participate in pathogen recognition, antigen presentation, autophagy regulation, immune activation and immunosuppression in bacterial infection. Studies have shown that miRNA, lncRNA and protein in exosomes play important roles in regulating antibacterial reaction of organism. We reviewed the immunomodulatory effects of exosomes on several intracellular and extracellular bacterial infections to provide evidence for studying the interaction between exosomes and bacterial infections.

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